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Introduction to Hardware (& Software). B.Ramamurthy bina@buffalo.edu University at Buffalo. Topics. Block diagram of general purpose computer vs. embedded system Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Evolution of embedded control units. General Purpose Computer System.

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introduction to hardware software

Introduction to Hardware (& Software)

B.Ramamurthy

bina@buffalo.edu

University at Buffalo

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

topics
Topics

Block diagram of general purpose computer vs. embedded system

Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

Evolution of embedded control units

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

general purpose computer system
General Purpose Computer System
  • CPU - Central processing unit
  • ALU - Arithmetic and logic unit
  • ROM - Read only memory
  • RAM - Random access memory

Internal

Memory

External

Memory

CPU

Control

Output

Input

ALU

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

microprocessor
Microprocessor
  • CPU on a chip is a micrprocessor.
  • Microprocessors are the enabling hardware for realtime systems.
  • Examples: vending machines, mobiles phones, alarm systems, washing machines, motor car engine controllers, heart monitors, microwave ovens all operate using embedded microcontrollers running dedicated software.

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embedded system
Embedded System

CPU

Control

ALU

Internalmemory

Ports

This unit on a single chip is called a microcontroller

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

bus architecture in general purpose systems
Bus Architecture (in general purpose systems)

BUS

CPU

Parallel IO

controller

DMA

controller

Memory

Interrupt controller

Serial IO

controller

Why is this important? What is its relevance to automobile embedded system?

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

embedded control unit
Embedded control unit

These are embedded systems controlling various major components of a modern automobile

Called ECUs

100’s of ECU in a typical electronic controlled modern car

Each ECU is an embedded system with its own dedicated function

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

evolution of ecu
Evolution of ECU

Long ago the automobiles controllers were all mechanical: levers and gears, relays, etc. : Generation 1 automobiles

Some of the mechanical units were replaced by electronic devices. Eg. Electronic fuel injection system; : Generation 2. The few electronic control units were operating autonomously.

In the next generation many ECUs were developed independently, and they also interacted with each other. Generation 3.

Standards for ECUs were developed and platform-based system evolved resulting in Generation 4. Internal networks that enabled ECUs to interact.

Next generation involves outside networks. Traffic information, vehicle to vehicle communication, realtime weather conditions, road conditions, emergency situations. Generation 5.

Bottom-line is that there is tremendous opportunities for R&D and production capabilities in this area.

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

activity 1
Activity#1

Identify some ECUs in a modern automobile and a possible qualitative requirement.

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

summary
Summary

We looked a very high level view of the hardware components in an embedded system.

Also looked the relevance of embedded system modern automobile design.

Most of the hardware such as system on a chip, VLSI will be covered other courses in this curriculum.

In this course we will focus on software development for RTOS.

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

software in c language
Software in C Language

Lets solve the problem below using C.

Consider the number game shown in the next few slides.

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

the number game 1
The Number Game (1)

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the number game 2
The Number Game (2)

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the number game 4
The Number Game (4)

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the number game 8
The Number Game (8)

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the number game 16
The Number Game (16)

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analysis
Analysis

What is theory /concept behind this game?

How did I arrive at the number you guessed?

How can I automate this process?

What is the data and what is the algorithm?

How can we convey these to a computing machine?

While a computer talks binary, we humans write programs in languages such as Java, C#, C++, Basic etc.

Binary numbers (1’s and 0’s) is the number system used by the computer systems.

We humans use decimal number system that has 10 distinct symbols (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)

Your task: Write a C program to computerize this game.

Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2