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Introduction to Hardware

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  1. Introduction to Hardware B.Ramamurthy University at Buffalo Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

  2. Topics Block diagram of general purpose computer vs. embedded system Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Evolution of embedded control units Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

  3. General Purpose Computer System • CPU - Central processing unit • ALU - Arithmetic and logic unit • ROM - Read only memory • RAM - Random access memory Internal Memory External Memory CPU Control Output Input ALU

  4. Microprocessor • CPU on a chip is a micrprocessor. • Microprocessors are the enabling hardware for realtime systems. • Examples: vending machines, mobiles phones, alarm systems, washing machines, motor car engine controllers, heart monitors, microwave ovens all operate using embedded microcontrollers running dedicated software.

  5. Embedded System CPU Control ALU Internalmemory Ports This unit on a single chip is called a microcontroller Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

  6. Bus Architecture (in general purpose systems) BUS CPU Parallel IO controller DMA controller Memory Interrupt controller Serial IO controller Why is this important? What is its relevance to automobile embedded system? Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

  7. Embedded control unit These are embedded systems controlling various major components of a modern automobile Called ECUs 100’s of ECU in a typical electronic controlled modern car Each ECU is an embedded system with its own dedicated function Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

  8. Evolution of ECU Long ago the automobiles controllers were all mechanical: levers and gears, relays, etc. : Generation 1 automobiles Some of the mechanical units were replaced by electronic devices. Eg. Electronic fuel injection system; : Generation 2. The few electronic control units were operating autonomously. In the next generation many ECUs were developed independently, and they also interacted with each other. Generation 3. Standards for ECUs were developed and platform-based system evolved resulting in Generation 4. Internal networks that enabled ECUs to interact. Next generation involves outside networks. Traffic information, vehicle to vehicle communication, realtime weather conditions, road conditions, emergency situations. Generation 5. Bottom-line is that there is tremendous opportunities for R&D and production capabilities in this area. Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

  9. Activity#1 Identify some ECUs in a modern automobile and a possible qualitative requirement. Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2

  10. Summary We looked a very high level view of the hardware components in an embedded system. Also looked the relevance of embedded system modern automobile design. Most of the hardware such as system on a chip, VLSI will be covered other courses in this curriculum. In this course we will focus on software development for RTOS. Amrita-UB-MSES-CSE524-2