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Identify and Describe

Identify and Describe

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Identify and Describe

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  1. Identify and Describe Have we got what we need to manage content in a digital environment? Brian Green EDItEUR / International ISBN Agency

  2. Agenda • What do we need to identify in a digital environment? • ISBN and other content identifiers • Issues of interoperability • Meet the ONIX family • Some conclusions

  3. What do we need to identify? • Digital books, serials, music, audio-visual (for a start) • Various digital manifestations of above • Fragments of above • Ways of collocating related manifestations • Names of parties involved in creation and production

  4. What have we got? • Digital manifestations/ expressions: • ISBN – ebooks • ISSN – ejournals (one for all e-formats) • ISRC / GRiD – music • V-ISAN – audio-visual, movies • Fragments: • ISBN • SICI • ISRC / GRiD • V-ISAN • Web-resolution • DOI

  5. A brief history of the ISBN • ISBN system devised in late 1960s as a supply chain facilitator • ISO ISBN standard (ISO 2108) first published in 1972 • N.B. UPC introduced in 1973, EAN-13 in 1977 • Universally adopted as the identifier for books • Bookland barcode in 1980 • Revised standard published May 2005 • 13-digit ISBN – 1 January 2007

  6. ISBN: a flexible identifier • Works throughout the supply chain (trade and libraries), deals with digital manifestations and granularity • Coverage includes digital monographic publications both on physical carriers (e.g. CD-ROMs) or online (e.g. ebooks) • Separate identifier required for each electronic format separately traded (What’s a new format?) • ISBNs can be allocated to parts of books traded separately (e.g. chapters, recipes)

  7. Issues of granularity • ISBN Standard (ISO 2108) • Different product forms (e.g. hardcover, paperback, Braille, audio-book, video, online electronic publication) shall be assigned separate ISBNs. Each different format of an electronic publication (e.g. “.lit”,“.pdf”, “.html”, “.pdb”) that is published and made separately available shall be given a separate ISBN. • But what constitutes a new product form? • The same format ebook • with different DRM? • The same MP3 audiobook with different compression? • Principle of functional granularity • Things should to be differentially identified only when there is a need to do so

  8. Welcome to Bookland • 1980, ISBN already well adopted internationally • EAN-13 barcode system, based on country prefixes, was beginning to take off • How to incorporate ISBN into EAN-13 barcodes system rather then have two identifiers? • Create a new country – Bookland – and give it a country prefix 978 (with 979 in reserve) • UCC, EAN and ISBN agree contract, revised in 2005 providing further prefix in reserve

  9. A “Bookland DOI” • How to web-enable the ISBN? • To link a publication’s identity to its internet location • To use multiple resolution to link manifestations, etc. etc. • Use Bookland technique to create DOIs, e.g. ISBN: 978-86-123-4567-8 The DOI would be: 10.978.86123/45678

  10. ISTC: identifying works • Driver for ISTC development probably rights / royalties flow) • Many ways of using ISTC • One ISTC – many ISBNs (Crusoe) • Several ISTCs (e.g. poems) one ISBN • One ISTC - several separately available chapters with ISBNs • Works in DAM systems not yet assigned ISBNs

  11. ISTC: rights and royalties • Vital in the rights field, e.g. • Old Possums Book of Practical Cats, T.S. Eliot • ISTC, ISBN Used as lyrics for • Cats, Andrew Lloyd Webber • ISWC, ISMNs for sheet music, ISRCs for recordings, ISAN / V-ISANs for DVDs • Royalties flow back to Lloyd Webber and TS Eliot’s estate (identified by ISNIs - International Standard Name Identifiers)

  12. ISTC: linking manifestations • Also useful for retail and library use • Collocating all related works and manifestations that user/buyer may be interested in • Much easier if upstream identifiers are contained in core metadata • Even better if metadata is interoperable • Work under way at Identifier Interoperability Working Group of ISO TC46 SC9 – home of ISO identifiers (use cases on SC9 web page) • ISTC, ISWC, ISRC, ISAN, ISSN, ISMN, ISNI, DOI

  13. No identifier is an island • Requirement for interoperability - both horizontal and vertical • On the web, resources increasingly include items in different media • Metadata will need to be interoperable for discovery, resource management and rights/royalty purposes • Metadata should not need to be created anew at each level (works, expressions and manifestations) or at different levels of granularity • Traditional identifiers need to be web-enabled

  14. Meet the ONIX family • ONIX for Books, Serials, DOIs, Licensing Terms • A family of XML formats for communicating rich metadata about published media, using common data elements, “composites” and code lists • XML Schemas, DTDs and user documentation • Developed and maintained by EDItEUR in collaboration with BISG, NISO and a growing number of partnerships with other organisations • Extensible, interoperable, logically structured

  15. ONIX for Books • Grew out of simple flat metadata sets developed separately by BIC and the AAP • Adopted by book trades of Australia, Canada, US, UK, Germany, Finland, France, Korea, Netherlands, Italy, Norway, Spain, Sweden • A trade standard, but used by Library of Congress and Deutsche Bibliothek for metadata supplied by publishers • RDA/ONIX discussions on common framework • Review of ONIX coverage of digital products

  16. Useful for Libraries? • Designed for trade use, to provide rich information with descriptions, ToCs, jacket images , promotional information, price and availability required by Internet and other booksellers • …but some libraries want to use this data to make their OPACs more user-friendly and like those of Internet booksellers • Also being used to collect CIP data from publishers

  17. ONIX for Serials • An EDItEUR – NISO collaboration through a Joint Working Party (JWP) • Being piloted as a series of messages to support exchanges of metadata between publishers, doc del, A&I services and libraries • A growing set of XML “building blocks” that can be combined in different ways to form messages for particular application needs

  18. ONIX for Serials • Serials Online Holdings (SOH) • a format for communicating details of the electronic holdings to which the library has access, and to populate resolution servers • Serials Products and Subscriptions (SPS) • communication of journal product catalogue information through the supply chain: publisher – subscription agent – library • Serials Release Notification (SRN) • issue and article level format to be used for communicating details of printed or electronic content as it is released • Coverage • XML structure for detailed holdings statements, print or electronic

  19. ONIX for Licensing Terms • A branch of the ONIX family designed to communicate usage rights and related information, using the same underlying structures • ONIX-PL (Nathan to elaborate) • Input to ACAP project to ensure interoperability between ACAP and ONIX for Licensing Terms • Work with IFRRO (International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organisations) on ONIX for communication of rights information (e.g. repertoire) between member organisations

  20. Some conclusions • Identifiers now in place or under development seem adequate for our needs (discuss!) • Trade and libraries need to work together on shared standards more than they have done in the past • Trading digital content and expressing usage rights is complex • “Make things as simple as possible but not simpler” (Albert Einstein)

  21. Links • ISO identifiers • www.collectionscanada.ca/iso/tc46sc9/ • EDItEUR website for ONIX formats • www.editeur.org • Brian Green • brian@isbn-international.org