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Gypsies in Europe. Claire Williams. Modern Discrimination. http://

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gypsies in europe

Gypsies in Europe

Claire Williams

modern discrimination
Modern Discrimination

2010-Thousands of Roma were forced to leave France . The ones that do not leave voluntarily are sent to Hungary where they are isolated from regular society in ghettos.

immigration to europe
Immigration to Europe
  • Although it is a highly debated and controversial topic, it is commonly believed that Gypsies originated in India and came to Europe during the Middle Ages or Renaissance
main gypsy tribes
Main Gypsy Tribes
  • Roma- concentrated in central and eastern Europe. Emigrated also (mostly from the 19th century onwards) to the rest of Europe, but also on the other continents

Romanichal-United Kingdom

Sinti- in German-speaking areas of Europe and some neighboring countries

early discrimination
Early Discrimination
  • strong anti-Romani policies emerged in Eastern Europe since they were increasingly seen as Turkish spies
  • Gypsies were often cited as a cause of the black plague, and were excluded from society
  • Gypsies were persecuted along with Jews in the Spanish Inquisition
  • Rumors were spread that the Roma were descended from a sexual encounter between a woman and Satan.
  • Many Christians believed that a conspiracy of blacksmiths, wizards and women had been organized to attack the Church. Since many Roma were blacksmiths, the conspiracy theory expanded to involve the Romani.
  • Another belief was that Roma forged the nails used in Christ's crucifixion.
conflict with protestantism
Conflict with Protestantism
  • “They ought to be put under one roof or in a stable, like Gypsies, in order that they may realize that they … are … but miserable captives.”–Martin Luther
  • An issue that Protestants and Catholics never disagreed on during the Protestant Reformation was the inferiority of Gypsies and Jews.
  • the Diet of Augsburg declared that "whosoever kills a Gypsy, will be guilty of no murder”
  • The Council of Trent declared that no Gypsy could become a priest.
forced assimilation
Forced Assimilation
  • Maria Theresa passed a series of decrees removing rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), forcing Romani boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forcing them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibiting marriage between Romanies (1773). Her successor prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language, punishable by flogging
  • In Norway, a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions
the romantic image of the gypsy emerges
The Romantic Image of the Gypsy Emerges
  • Works such as Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte and The Hunchback of Notre Dam by Victor Hugo popularize ideas about Gypsies
  • Hugo reinforces false stereotypes of Gypsies as fortune tellers, dancers, entertainers etc.
gains in russia
Gains in Russia
  • In the fifteen years after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, Roma flourished. In 1925 the All-Russian Romani Union, led by Alexander V. Germano, was formed, and Gypsies acquired nationality status. In 1927 a Romani alphabet was devised by a group of Romani and Russian teachers. Four schools for Romani students were opened, and others offered some instruction in Romani. Texts, books, and collections of poetry and stories were published in Romany by Romany writers
persecution begins to intensify with stalin
Persecution begins to intensify with Stalin
  • Thousands of Roma, under increased pressure to settle and collectivize, were sent en masse to Siberia or shot. Some all-Gypsy collectives were disbanded; the members were forced to integrate with regular society.
  • At least 30,000-35,000 Soviet Roma were killed indirectly by Stalin
porajamos romani holocaust
Porajamos (Romani Holocaust)
  • attempt made by Nazi Germany (killed 258,000), Croatia, Hungary and their allies to exterminate the European Romani during WWII.
  • almost the entire Romani population was killed in Croatia (27,000), Estonia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Romania (36,000) and the Netherlands
21 st century
21st Century
  • After the Porajamos, countries that accepted Jew refugees closed their doors to anyone of Romani origin.
  • The practice of placing Romani students in segregated schools or classes remains widespread in countries across Central and Eastern Europe
  • In Eastern Europe, Gypsies often live in low-class ghettos, are subject to discrimination in jobs and schools, and are often subject to police brutality.
look familiar famous gypsies
Look familiar?- Famous Gypsies
  • YulBrynner –1/4 Gypsy and ¼ Jewish. He began his acting career among Roma playing guitar and working as a trapezist in circus.
  • Sir Charles Chaplin- Born Charles Spencer Chaplin, it is usually assumed that he was Jewish. However, there is not any documented source to assert with certainty if he had also Jewish ancestry. On the other side, it is known that his mother, Hannah Smith, was Romanichel.
  • Sir Michael Caine- comes from a Romanichel family
  • Elvis Presely- ancestors came from Germany in the early 18th century and their original surname was Pressler. They were part of the Sinti people commonly known as “Black Dutch.”