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Education in Europe Education for Europe

Education in Europe Education for Europe

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Education in Europe Education for Europe

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  1. Education in EuropeEducation for Europe systems of educationopportunities for cooperation

  2. Structure of the presentation • not a theoretical research paper on education • overview of educational systems of: • Czech Republic • Germany • Hungary • Poland • Slovakia • Youth in Action—EU programme for the youth and schools Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  3. Czech Republic • 2008: people aged 0-29 represented 34.5% of the population—3,609,400 • the compulsory school age is 6-15 (8.04% of the population) • the official language of instruction is Czech • according to the documents sent to EU only Polish minority is populous enough to have minority schools • majority of compulsory and post-compulsory (non-tertiary) schools are public (98% and 83.8% of students, respectively) • 1st of January 2005—there were adopted new acts: Education Act and Act on Educational Staff • Higher Education Act was adopted in 1999 Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  4. Czech Republic • public schools are administered by central, regional and local governments • the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports cares for the integrity of the educational system: • develop and implement educational policy • determines the content of education (eg. framework educational programmes) • finance of education (procedures) • in charge of school register • regional authorities formulate long-term policy objectives; they organize upper secondary and tertiary professional schools • communities are responsible for compulsory schooling Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  5. Czech Republic • school attendance is compulsory for nine years: 6-15 • during the second stage it is possible to proceed to gymnázium – secondary school providing general education – or to eight-year taneční konzervatoř – dance conservatoire (attended by ca. 0.07%) • 2009/10 average class size was 20 • the binding document for education is the Framework Educational Programme for Basic Education (FEP BE) approved by the MEYS in 2005 Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  6. Czech Republic • The general principles of assessment of pupils' educational results are set by the Education Act • rules of pupils' assessment are defined by each school in the School Code, respecting the MEYS′s degree and curriculum • continuous assessment is provided by teachers, most often in a 5-point scale • pupils who have not succeeded in all compulsory subjects (except subjects focusing only on educational care) can repeat a year once on every stage Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  7. Czech Republic Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  8. Czech Republic • prerequisites for acceptance in upper secondary education are: • completing a compulsory education and • successfully meeting entrance requirements set by the school head of střední škola, who also decides on admission of a pupil • requirement may include the entrance examination (possibly the aptitude test) organised by the school • The Framework Educational Programme for Upper Secondary General Education (Gymnázium) stipulates 8 educational areas, 5 cross-curricular subjects and also the key competences of school leaver. The number of lessons per week must be between 27 and 35 in each year Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  9. Germany • 2008 people aged 0-29 represented 31.3% of the population: 25,756,900 • because Germany is a federal state, some of the regulations depend on the decisions of Lands • as a rule, the language of instruction is German • majority of pupils attend public-sector schools: • 92.9% in general education • 92.7% in vocational education • private schools receive some financial support from the Länder, in various forms • under the Basic Law (Grundgesetz), educational legislation and administration are primarily the responsibility of the Länder, in a system comprising: • the Land Ministries of Education, Cultural affairs and Science • the regional authorities (Bezirksregierung/Oberschulamt) and • the lower-level school supervisory authorities (Schulamt) Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  10. Germany • The Lands cooperate with each other within the framework of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany on matters of importance for all Länder • Federal Gov. is responsible for : • admission to higher education institutions and the degrees they confer; • financial assistance for individual training, including promotion of younger academic staff • initial training in the duales System (the dual system of vocational education and training in both the workplace and at school, attended by 2/3 of the youth) is financed in a more complex way: • the training in the workplace is financed by companies, and • the school element by the Länder Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  11. Germany • Full-time education is compulsory from between the ages of 6 and 15 or 16 (depending on the Land) • part-time education is compulsory until the age of 18 for those who do not attend a full-time school • transition from primary school to secondary level is subject to different regulations depending on Land’s legislation • decision on the type of school attended at lower secondary level is either taken by the parents or the school or school supervisory authority on the basis of an assessment made by the primary school • average class size was 21.7 (primary); 24.8 (lower secondary) Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  12. Germany • Länder ministries determine the curriculum, recommend teaching methods and approve textbooks • secondary curricula depend on the type of institution, but usually continue primary core subjects, and include at least one foreign language as well as natural and social sciences • continuous assessment based on written examinations and oral contributions is common practice at all levels • pupils may be required to repeat a school year • pupils who reach the appropriate standard at the end of lower secondary education receive a leaving certificate (Hauptschulabschluss and Mittlerer Schulabschluss) Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  13. Germany Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  14. Germany • Admission to the gymnasiale Oberstufe (upper level of the Gymnasium) requires a lower secondary leaving qualification meeting certain standards of achievement. • Admission to courses of vocational education at upper secondary level is based on certificates and qualifications acquired at the end of lower secondary level: • depending on the training objective, Berufsfachschulen require their pupils to have a Hauptschulabschluss or a Mittlerer Schulabschluss • Fachoberschule requires a Mittlerer Schulabschluss • Berufliches Gymnasium or Fachgymnasium requires a Mittlerer Schulabschluss satisfying the requirements for admittance to the gymnasiale Oberstufe or an equivalent qualification • compulsory full-time schooling must be completed before commencing vocational education and training • there are no other formal prerequisites for admission to the dual system; vocational education and training in the dual system is generally open to everyone • The curriculum determined by the Länder ministries, varies in accordance with the type of upper secondary education and training Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  15. Hungary • 2009 people aged 0-29 represented 37% of the population: 3,726,800 • compulsory schooling age is 6 (8 the latest) to 18 • the official language of instruction is Hungarian • officially recognized ethnic and national minorities (eg. German, Romanian, Slovenian, Greek) have public minority institutions • ca. 89% of pupils attend public schools • since the elections of 2010 the organisation of central administration has been restructured and thus educational sector belongs to the umbrella ministry called National Resources • the Ministry is responsible for education, culture, social affairs, health care, youth and sport Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  16. Hungary • overall control is the responsibility of the Minister responsible for education, whose authority covers all the issues and activities falling under the Act on Public Education (all institutions: public and private) • The Educational Authority (Oktatási Hivatal) was created in 2006 to merge several public education and higher education government agencies • the Authority operates as a central office, under the control of the Minister responsible for education • it participates in the organisation and coordination of control; • assessment and evaluation tasks regarding all levels of education • it cooperates in tasks with authorities specified in the Public Education Act and belonging to the sphere of authority of the minister Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  17. Hungary Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  18. Hungary • declaration of school-readiness is required for admission to primary school. Primary schools are obliged to enrol all pupils whose residence is within the catchment area but parents may seek admission for their children at any institution • free choice of upper secondary school (gimnázium, szakközépiskola, szakiskola) is laid down in legislation, but upper secondary schools (gimnázium, szakközépiskola, szakiskola) may stage an entrance examination or set admission requirements • the law stipulates the provision of free compulsory education; public-sector schools can only charge a compensation for some extra-curricular activities Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  19. Hungary • regulations define the maximum number of pupils/students per class as 26 in grades 1-4, 30 in grades 5-8 and 35 grades 9-13 • From the end of grade two pupils may be assessed based upon the traditional numeric grading (scale 1-5), however, the pedagogical programme of the school may prescribe a different assessment system from grade two • performance and progress of pupils are regularly evaluated by teachers throughout the school year • in the first grade pupils may not fail; at the end of grade two and above pupils may be made to repeat a year • at the end of upper secondary education in Gimnázium and Szakközépiskola pupils sit for the national secondary school leaving examination (érettségi vizsga), which is a prerequisite for higher education Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  20. Hungary In primary and secondary education a three-level structure constitutes the overall framework for curricular matters: • The National Core Curriculum is a government decree. It specifies the obligatory and common objectives of the educational/teaching work performed in the general (non-vocational) phase of education. It focuses on the acquisition of lifelong learning key competences. In addition, in vocational education there is a Central programme of vocational subjects issued in accordance with the Act on Vocational Education • Framework Curricula, centrally accredited or published by the Minister, based on the National Core Curriculum and serving as a basis for developing Local Curricula • at institutional level, pedagogical programmes including the local curricula are developed by schools in accordance with the stipulations of the National Core Curriculum and are approved by the teaching staff and the maintainer. Secondary schools have to take into account the requirements of the secondary school leaving exam when drafting their local curricula. Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  21. Poland • 2008 people aged 0-29 represented 38.7% of the population: 14,762,500 • the compulsory school age is 6-18 • the language of instruction is Polish • ethnic and national minorities can organize public schools with minority language as the language of instruction (eg. Ukrainian, German, Lithuanian) • almost all pupils (98%) attends public schools • according to the Education System Act of 1991, schools can be of two types: public (state) schools, which offer free education within the framework of the core curricula, and non-public schools Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  22. Poland • the administration, organization and decisions relating to the use of financial resources by schools are the subject of consultation between the school and the body running the school: • local authorities (gminy) – in case of kindergartens, primary and lower secondary schools, and • district authorities (powiaty) – in case of upper secondary schools • The Ministry of National Education is responsible for nearly the whole system of education (except for higher education) • the education reform assume that only the national educational policy will be developed and carried out centrally • the inspection of teaching standards in schools comes directly under the MofE and is represented by a regional administrative body (kuratorium) Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  23. Poland • pupils attend public schools free of charge • the only admission criterion for primary school is the age limit • the admission criterion for gimnazjum (lower secondary) is the certificate of primary school completion • it is recommended that the number of students in a class does not exceed 26 Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  24. Poland • core curricula for compulsory teaching, created at the central level by groups of experts appointed by the MofE, are the same for all pupils • schools (teachers) can choose the textbooks from a list approved by the MofE; they are free to decide the teaching and assessment methods, introduce innovative teaching methods and choose curricula which are approved by the school head • assessment of the knowledge and skills of pupils throughout the school year is not standardised in Poland and remains totally at the discretion of teachers • pupils who obtain unsatisfactory results are required to repeat a year if the teachers’ council decides so Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  25. Poland • external evaluation system in compulsory education consists of the following external standardised tests and examinations: • at the end of the 6-year primary school (age 13) • at the end of the 3-year lower secondary school, gimnazjum (age 16) • Tthe matura examination (egzamin maturalny), entitling pupils for admission to higher education is made up of two parts: external written (prepared and assessed by Regional Examination Commissions) and internal oral (assessed by school teachers) • tests and examinations are organised by agencies – 8 Regional Examination Boards supported and supervised by the Central Examination Board Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  26. Poland • MofE defines core curricula for general education for each subject and cross-curricular theme in all types of upper secondary schools • vocational examination, called egzamin zawodowy (in basic vocational schools, technical upper-secondary schools and post-secondary schools) consists of two parts: written, which examines the knowledge and abilities connected with a specific job and running a business activity, and a practical one, which examines the skills necessary to perform the job Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  27. Slovakia • 2008: people aged 0-29 represented 38.9% of the population: 2,106,700 • the compulsory school age is 6-15 • the official language of instruction is Slovakian • some minorities (Hungarian, Ukrainian, German, Rutheanian and Bulgarian) have education in their languages • 92.4% of full time pupils and students (throughout tertiary education) attend public-sector schools • the education is supervised by municipalities, regions and the bodies of self-government in education, regulated by the Act No. 596/2003 of the Law Code on state administration and self-government in education • financial matters are regulated by the Act on funding of primary and secondary schools and educational establishment No 597/2003 Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  28. Slovakia • The Ministry of Education of the SR as a central body of state administration governs the execution of state administration in education and checks up this execution • MofE determines: • the network of education establishments; • principles of pedagogical management of schools; • it works out bills and the concept of the development of the education system • general administration at regional level is represented by the regional school offices (which are 8) • general administration at the local level is in competence of municipalities • State inspectors have responsibility for the task of educational inspection, the supervision of head teachers and the external assessment of schools Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  29. Slovakia • compulsory education is free; the admission requirement to základná škola is the pupil’s age and school maturity • to be admitted to eight years gymnázium (at the age of 11), pupils must successfully complete the fifth grade of primary education and pass an entrance examination • to be admitted to eight years konzervatórium for dance field (at the age of 11) pupils must successfully complete the fifth grade of primary education and pass an entrance examination Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  30. Slovakia • State educational programme defines compulsory curriculum • school educational programme have to be in accordance with the State educational programme; the educational standards are a constituent part of the State educational programme • the fulfilment of the school educational programme and the State educational programme is controlled by the State School Inspection • school educational programme represents a significant change in education because it enables to strengthen the school autonomy and creates space for implementation of education according to specific orientation of the school, needs of the region, employers and other stakeholders • average class size was 19.0; in primary school the classes are established for 15 pupils at least • teachers are free to use the teaching methods and textbooks of their choice (from a list approved by the Ministry of Education of the SR) Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  31. Slovakia • to be admitted, students must successfully complete the final year of nine-years of primary school základná škola and pass an entrance examination (if respective secondary school requires it • curriculum is set according to the same arrangements as in compulsory education Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  32. Slovakia • Upper secondary schools organize post-secondary study (stredná odborná škola) designed for applicants who received upper secondary education with the school-leaving certificate • In the post-secondary study the students complete and deepen the education received to improve their skills for performing occupation • Post-secondary education is organized more in the form of part-time study Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  33. Youth in Action • Youth in Action is one of the programmes organized and run by the European Union, targeted at young people • it aims to inspire: • a sense of active European citizenship • solidarity and tolerance among young Europeans and • to involve them in shaping the Union's future • it also aims at providing broader vision of the responsible citizenship for the world • it promotes mobility within and beyond the EU's borders, non-formal learning and intercultural dialogue, and encourages the employability and inclusion of all the youth Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  34. Youth in Action • Youth in Action Programme (YiA) was chartered by the Decision N° 1719/2006/EC of 15th November 2006 • the European Parliament and the Council adopted the Youth in Action Programme for the period 2007 to 2013 • UE created the legal framework to support non-formal learning activities for young people • YiA is connected with the education but this is not a traditionally understood education • YiA uses the outcomes of previous actions/programmes: • Youth for Europe Programme (l989-1999), • the European Voluntary Service (1996-1999) and • the YOUTH Programme (2000-2006). Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  35. Youth in Action • the total budget for YiA for the seven years (2007-2013) is 885 million euros • every year the actual annual budget is decided by the European Parliament and the Council • it is a general assumption that not all the costs of the sponsored activities will be funded by EU • youth from many countries of the world can participate in the programme • of course, always with at least one partner being from a EU member state Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  36. Youth in Action • some calls might be more specific concerning eligible countries Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  37. Youth in Action - eligibility • young person aged 13-30, group of such people, or somebody active in youth work or youth organisations legally resident in one of the Programme or Partner Countries • (some calls have special age restrictions: it should be remembered, if the lower age limit is 15 years, participants must have reached their 15th birthday by the application deadline) • the other category of participant is „promoter”: an organisation, institution representing the participant Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  38. Youth in Action • Promoter can be: • a non-profit or non-governmental organisation; • a local, regional public body; • an informal group of young people; • a body active at European level in the youth field (ENGO), having member branches in at least 8 Programme Countries; • an international governmental non-profit organisation; • a profit-making organisation organising an event in the area of youth, sport or culture Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  39. Youth in Action The general objectives of YiA are: • to promote young people’s active citizenship in general and their European citizenship in particular • to develop solidarity and promote tolerance among young people, in particular in order to foster social cohesion in the European Union • to foster mutual understanding between young people in different countries and from various social groups • to contribute to developing the quality of support systems for youth activities and the capabilities of civil society organisations in the youth field • to promote European cooperation in the youth field Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  40. Youth in Action - priorities • European citizenship--making young people aware that they are European: • to encourage young people to reflect on European topics and to involve them in the discussion on the construction and the future of the European Union • projects should have a strong 'European dimension' and stimulate reflection on the emerging European society and its values (they should not focus on national or regional problems only) • to stimulate young people to reflect on the essential characteristics of European society and to encourage them to play an active role in their communities (they should be active European citizens) Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  41. Youth in Action - priorities • Participation of young people: • to increase the participation by young people in the civic life of their community • to increase participation by young people in the system of representative democracy • to provide greater support for various forms of learning to participate • projects should reflect these three dimensions by using participatory approaches as a pedagogical principle • project cannot be based on a traditional teaching-learning process • rather learning by active participation Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  42. Youth in Action - priorities • Cultural diversity: • it should teach respect for cultural diversity together with the fight against racism and xenophobia (discovering common European heritage) • it should facilitate joint activities of young people from different cultural, ethnic and religious backgrounds (people of various backgrounds should be participating) • projects should stimulate awareness and reflection on the differences in values (this calls for special educational approach) Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  43. Youth in Action - priorities • Inclusion of young people with fewer opportunities: • to give access to all young people • especially those facing social obstacles (eg. ethnicity, religion; (ex-)drug or alcohol abusers) • economic obstacles (youth with low standard of living, form low income families) • people with disabilities • young immigrants • projects aiming at reaching these groups are given the priority Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  44. Youth in Action - priorities • Annual priorities – 2011: • European Year of Volunteering • Youth unemployment • Inclusive growth (the issue of poverty) • Global environmental challenges and climate changes • Creativity and entrepreneurship • EU-China Year of Youth Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  45. Youth in Action • YiA promotes non-formal learning (according to European Qualification Framework that appreciates non-formal learning) • dissemination and exploitation of results relates to the use and practical application of a project's outcomes throughout various follow-up activities • the aim of such follow-up activities is to increase the impact of the project by its multiplying effect and to ensure the sustainability of achieved results • the results should last longer that project itself Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org

  46. Youth in Action - info • http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/youth/index_en.php • this is the best source of information about the programme • offers information in national languages, too Education in Europe; Education for Europeradoslaw.rybkowski@fulbrightmail.org