Unit 7 The Fun They Had
Overview • Word study • A global picture • A detailed study of Text I • Practices & Homework
Word Study • Pronunciation • Derivation • Synonyms & Antonyms • Differentiation • Word parts
Word Study: Pronunciation • Pronunciation • Read the new words and expressions aloud.
Word Study: Synonyms & Antonyms • smart (syn) (anto) intelligent stupid • scornful (syn) (anto) contemptuous respectful
Word Study: Synonyms & Antonyms • lofty (syn) proud dignified / arrogant haughty (anto) humble modest unassuming • dispute(v. ) (syn) argue (anto) concede
Word Differentiation (Textbook) IV. Vocabulary Exercise II (on p 102) • 1. Funnyis a very informal word, focusing mainly on whatever results in laughter because of oddness, abnormality, or inappropriateness. Interestingrefers to something that attracts people’s attention, usually because it is exciting, unusual and deserves their observation and study.
Word Differentiation (Textbook) • 2. Stillsuggests an unruffled or tranquil state, and often refers to a moment of calm between periods of noise and movement, and during this moment there is no sign of activity. Silentsimply means becoming speechless or being without noise; it does not necessarily suggest serenity or motionlessness.
Word Study: Word Differentiation • 3. Disputeis often used as a transitive verb, meaning to say that something is incorrect or untrue, to fight passionately for control or ownership of something. Argue usually refers to a reasoned presentation of views or to a heated exchange of opinion; very often when used intransitively, it is followed by prepositions like “with,” “for/against,” “about”, etc.
Word Differentiation Textbook) • 4. Usualis applied to whatever recurs frequently and steadily, referring to natural happenings as well as to occurrences based on the customs of the community or the habits of an individual. Regularemphasizes a conformity to the established or natural order of things, referring to events that happen often, or events that have equal amounts of time between them, so that they happen at the same time, for example, each day or each week.
Word Study: Word Parts • dis- -not, opposite of, reverse • dislike disapproval disagree -separate • disconnect disperse dismantle • mechan- -of or related to machines • mechanic mechanical mechanize
Word Study: Word Parts • re- -again • rebuild rewrite review • super- -over, above • Superman supermarket superstar
Revision: Do you remember? • ____: v. tochange slightly in order to make suitable for a particular purpose or situation • ____: v. to putsth. into a small space, esp. in order to protect or hide it • ____: n. a division or a part of a whole number in mathematics • ____: a. showing great disrespect for sb. or sth. • ____: a. having many thin folds • ____: n. a space or room under the roof of a house often used for storing things
Revision Do you remember? • ______: v. to find sth. by using mathematics • ______: a. thinking oneself better than others • ______: ad. in a way to behave calmly and seem not to worry or care about anything • ______: v. to question or doubt the truth of sth. • ______: a. worked by machines
A Global Picture • Background Information • About the author • About science fiction • Comprehension Check • Theme & A Structural analysis • A Detailed Study of Text I
Background Info: The Author Isaac Asimov (1920–1992) • Is an American biochemist and prolific science fiction writer; • Was born in the former USSR on January 2, 1920; • Emigrated to the United States at 3 with his parents; • Was brought up in Brooklyn, New York; • Graduated from Columbia University in 1939; • Got his Ph.D. in the same university in 1947; • Published about 500 books; • Died of kidney and heart failure in 1992.
A Global Picture • Background information • Type of writing & Theme • A structural analysis
Background Information Asimov taught biochemistry at Boston University, but he is most widely known for his science fiction. Some of his best-known works are I, Robot, published in 1950 and The Foundation Trilogy, published in 1951-1953.
Background Information • Science fiction is a type of writing in which imaginary future developments in science and their effects on life are described. Science fiction writers are interested in making the world see the changes in our lives caused by the development of science, so it is regarded as a way to explore how society may change as science develops.
Background Information • Asimov’s definition of Science Fiction Modern science fiction is the only form of literature that consistently considers the nature of the changes that face us, the possible consequences, and the possible solutions. That branch of literature which is concerned with the impact of scientific advance upon human beings. (1952)
Comprehension Check • Complete the Comprehension Exercises on pages 100-101. • Answer the following questions: • 1. From the story what can we see about education in the distant future? • 2. How does Maggie feel about her education? • 3.What do you think the message of the story is?
A Structural Analysis • This short story centers around an old paper-and-ink book about school and involves two main characters—Margie and Tommy. • Text I can be divided into three parts: • Part I (para. 1)--the background • Part II (para. 2—30)--the body of the story (a conversation between Margie and Tommy) • Part III (para. 31—35)—the resolution
Theme • Theme: • In distant future, children would have lessons with mechanical teachers at home, and such a practice might deprive kids of the great fun the old school offered.
A Structural Analysis: A Closer Look • Part I (Para. 1) • Margie, a girl living in 2157, wrote about an interesting conversation she had with her friend Tommy in her diary. • Part II (Para. 2—30) • The 11-year-old Margie, who hated school very much, learnt surprising yet interesting facts about schools existing centuries ago from Tommy. • Part III (Para. 31—35) • By comparison with the school life she had with the computer teacher, Margie was interested and even a bit longed for the fun kids at old schools once enjoyed.
A Detailed Study of Text I • Review • Text comprehension of Text I • Language points • Stylistic features • Expansion
Revision: Vocabulary I. Write out the words with meanings and initial letters given. • s____: v. to utter a loud, piercing, high-pitched cry, esp. in fear, pain, or excitement • d____: v. to question or doubt the truth of sth. • c____: n. a set of instructions that tell a computer what to do • s____: ad. very sadly • i____: v. to put sth. inside or into sth. else • w____: v. to make a high or musical sound by blowing air out through one’s lips • s____: n. an assigned place and time in a sequence or schedule • p____: n. the action of pressing a key or button in order to activate a device or perform an operation
Revision: Vocabulary II. Fill in the gaps with words or phrases from Text I. • 1. They decided to h_____ eastward. • 2. Keeping a d______ is a great way to express your emotions on paper and treasure experiences. • 3. Is a captain s______to a commander in the navy? • 4.When I asked for help, he just smiled l_____and turned away. • 5. We c______ that the average size farm in Lancaster County is 60 acres. • 6.The chairman did not d______ the fact that the company is in trouble.
Key I. scream dispute code sorrowfully II. 1. head 2. diary 3. superior 4. loftily 5. calculate 6. dispute
Comprehension questions • 1. What does the narrative text tell us? • 2. From the text what can we see about education in the distant future?
Comprehension questions Language points Paraphrases Part I (para. 1—4)
Language Points & Paraphrases • fun (in the title) • Some fixed expressionswith “fun” • have ~ great / good ~~ and games • Compare (when fun is used as an adj.) • He told a funny joke. • Beijing is a fun city.
Language Points & Paraphrases • head: v. to be in the first or foremost position of (Para. 1) • The president’s car ~ed the procession through the city centre. • They decided to ~ for home. (to go in a particular direction) . • (figurative) You’re ~ing for an accident if you drive after drinking. (to be likely to happen to you soon )
Comprehension questions Language points Paraphrases Part II (Para. 2—30)
Comprehension Questions (Para. 2—30) • 1. What is the conversation concerned with? • 2. Why does Margie hate school? • 3. If your were Margie, what would you feel?
Language Points & Paraphrases • crinkly: a. having many folds in sth. or on its surface (Para. 3) • her big ~ face a ~ shirt • Related word: crinkle • be supposed to do (Para. 3) • The CIA issupposed to work for the president. (to have a duty or responsibility to do sth.) • The new policy is supposed to help single parents.(to be generally considered to be)
Language Points & Paraphrases • … and it was awfully funny to read words that stood still instead of moving the way they were supposed to—on a screen, you known. (Para. 3) • Paraphrase • and it was very amusing to read words that were motionless instead of moving the way they ought to.
Language Points & Paraphrases • What a waste! When you’re through with the book, you just throw it away, I guess. (Para. 4) • through: adj. having finished • Let me know when you’re ~ with the computer. • The guard at the gate wouldn't let us ~. ( in one side and out another side of) • Paraphrase • When you have finished reading the book, you merely cast it away, I believe.
Language Points & Paraphrases • Telebook (Para. 5): a book written for presentation on TV • tele-: • distance; distant • telepathy • telescope • telecommunication • by or for television • teleconference • teleshopping • telesales
Language Points & Paraphrases • Margie was scornful. (Para. 10) • scornful: a. showing a great lack of respect for sb. / sth. because one considers him / it as stupid or worthless • Sneer is a ~ facial expression characterized by the slight raising of one corner of the upper lip. • What’s there to write about school? (Para. 10) • Paraphrase • The school is so uninteresting that there is nothing worth being written into a book.
Language Points & Paraphrases • …she had been doing worse and worse until her mother had shaken her head sorrowfully and sent for the County Inspector. (Para. 11) • send for: to ask or order sb. to come by sending them a message • Don’t worry. I’ve sent for the doctor. • Paraphrase • …her test results grew steadily worse, which made her mother very sad. Assuming that something had gone wrong with the teacher, her mother asked the County Inspector to come and fix the machine.
Language Points & Paraphrases • He smiled at Margie and gave her an apple, then took the teacher apart. (Para. 12) • take…apart: to separate a machine, piece of equipment etc. into parts • My brother knows how to take cars apart, but he can’t put them back together again. • synonyms: dismantle disassemble • Paraphrase • With a smile, the Inspector gave Margie an apple, and then disassembled the mechanical teacher.
Language Points & Paraphrases • …but he knew how all right, and, after an hour or so, there it was again, … (Para. 12) • Paraphrase …but he knew how to put the machine together pretty well, so about an hour later, Margie’s mechanical teacher could work properly again, …
Language Points & Paraphrases • She always had to write them out in a punch code they made her learn when she was six years old, and the mechanical teacher calculated the mark in no time. (Para. 12) • a punch code: a computer system of words, letters, numbers, etc. • in no time: almost instantly; immediately • At his age, he’ll heal ~ . • Paraphrase She always had to write her homework in a computer language by pressing keys which she learnt at the age of six, and the computer which served as her teacher would immediately work out the mark.
Language Points & Paraphrases • She had been hoping they would take the teacher away altogether. (Para. 13) • altogether: adv. entirely; completely; utterly • This word may be omitted ~. • These rare animals may soon disappear ~. • Paraphrase She had been hoping that they would carry the mechanical teacher to another place once for all.
Language Points & Paraphrases • Tommy looked at her with very superior eyes, ….(Para. 14) • superior: adj. thinking oneself better than others • Her ~ tone of voice annoyed me. • She was said to be of very ~ intelligence. (better than other things of the same kind) • He added loftily, pronouncing the word carefully, “Centuries ago.” (Para. 14) • loftily: adv.in a manner that shows one is better than others, haughtily • The man behaved ~ and turned down any request for help. • pronounce: v. • In the word “adjust," the letter “d" is not ~d.(to make the sound of a letter, a word, etc ) • I now ~ you man and wife. (to declare officially or formally)
Language points & paraphrases • Margie wasn’t prepared to dispute that. (Para. 21) • dispute: v. to question or doubt the truth of sth. • Some economists ~d whether consumer spending is as strong as the figures suggest. • Your bravery has never been ~d. • The two governments ~dover the ownership of the territory. • They have won previous pay ~s with the management. (an argument or disagreement)
Language points & paraphrases • “But my mother says a teacher has to be adjusted to fit the minds of each boy and girl it teaches…. (Para. 25) • adjust: v.to change slightly in order to make suitable for a particular purpose or situation • It took her two years to ~ to life in England. • The figures have been ~ed for inflation.
Language Points & Paraphrase • He walked away whistling, the dusky old book tucked beneath his arm. (Para. 30) • tuck: v.to put sth. into a small space, esp. in order to protect or hide it • The bird ~ed its head under its wing. • She ~ed her scarf into her blouse. • The underlined part an absolute construction formed by a noun and a past participle phrase. It is used as an adverbial showing attending circumstance. • Paraphrase He whistled a tune as he moved away, holding the dusty old book under his arm.
Comprehension questions Language points Sentence highlights Part III (Para. 31—35)