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Unit Two The Fun They Have Issac Asimov. Contents A. Text one I. Pre-reading : (I). warm-up questions (II). Background information II. While-reading: Text Analysis (I) Structure analysis (II) Comprehension questions (III) Language points (IV) Difficult sentences III. Post-Reading:

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slide2
Contents
  • A. Text one
  • I. Pre-reading:
  • (I). warm-up questions
  • (II). Background information
  • II. While-reading: Text Analysis
  • (I) Structure analysis
  • (II) Comprehension questions
  • (III) Language points
  • (IV) Difficult sentences
  • III. Post-Reading:
  • (I) Grammatical items
  • (II) Translation Exercises
  • (III) Oral activities
  • (IV) Writing practice
  • B. Text two
  • (I)Questions for text comprehension
  • (II)Language points
a text one

Pre-reading: (I) warm-up questions

A. text one
  • I. Pre-reading:
  • (I) warm-up questions
  • Have you ever read any science fiction about the future world? Please name a few.
  • Who do you think future world’s teachers would be?
ii background information
1. about the author

Isaac Asimov(1920–92)

the author of the text, is an American biochemist and author.

He was born in the former USSR on January 2, 1920. He was taken to the United States at the age of 3 and brought up in Brooklyn, New York.

He graduated from Columbia University in 1939, and got his PhD. in the same university in 1947.

Pre-reading: (II)Background information

(II). Background Information
slide5

Pre-reading: (II)Background information

  • He taught biochemistry at Boston University, but he is most widely known for his science fiction. Some of his best-known works are I, Robot, published in 1950 and The Foundation Trilogy, published in 1951-1953.
slide6

Pre-reading: (II)Background information

Isaac Asimov's “Three Laws of Robotics”

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.

2. A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.

3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

slide7

While-reading: (I) Structure analysis

  • II. While-reading: Text Analysis
  • (I) Structure analysis
  • This narrative story centers around a very old book about school and involves two main characters---Margie and Tommy. The text can be divided into three main parts. The first part, Paragraph 1, serves as the background of the story. The second part, from Paragraph 2 to Paragraph 30, is the major portion of the story, with a conversation between leading characters running through most of it. We can learn a lot from this part.
slide8

While-reading: (I) Structure analysis

  • The last part, covering the last five paragraphs, tells us something about the schoolroom and the mechanical teacher. This part also reveals indirectly how children in the future may dislike school with a mechanical teacher only and how they wish to have human teachers teaching them.
slide9

While-reading: (I) Structure analysis

  • Part I Paragraph 1
  • This paragraph serves as the background of the story. It tells us the exact date on which the story occurs, the name of the leading character, and the real book around which the story evolves. Time is very important in this part.
slide10

While-reading: (I) Structure analysis

  • Part II Paragraphs 2~30
  • These paragraphs may be considered to constitute the second part or the main part of the narrative text. It is the longest and most important portion of the story, with a somewhat long conversation between the two leading characters running through most of it.
slide11

While-reading: (I) Structure analysis

  • Part III Paragraphs 31-35
  • These paragraphs, covering the last part of the text, tells us something about the schoolroom and mechanical teacher. Besides, Margie’s psychological activities are also described. She was thinking about how nice the old school was and how the school kids must have loved it in the old days; she was meditating on how children in the Distant future dislike school with a mechanical teacher only and how they wish to have human teachers teaching them.
slide12

While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions

  • (II) Comprehension questions
  • When did the story happen?
  • ----May 17, 2157
  • What did Margie write in her diary on that night?
  • ----“ Today Tommy found a real book!”
  • Can you guess what she meant by a real book? What’s your opinion of a real book?
  • ---open questions
slide13

While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions

  • What is the conversation between Margie and Tommy concerned with?
  • ----a very old book about the old kind of school with human teachers that existed centuries ago.
  • Why does Margie hate school?
  • What about your school life?
  • If your were Margie, what would you feel?
slide14

While-reading: (II) Comprehension questions

  • What do you know about the schoolroom and the mechanical teacher?
  • What was Margie thinking about?
  • How do you comment the future school according to the text?
  • How do you understand the title of the text?
slide15

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • (III) Language points
  • head: lead; be at the front of; be at the top of
  • The president’s car headed the procession.
  • She will head the cast.
  • This canyon heads the list of natural attractions.
  • The page was headed “Expenses”.
  • I was heading out of the room when she called me back.We were heading towards Kumasi when our truck broke down.He headed straight for(= went towards) the
slide16

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • diary: a daily record of the events in a person’s life; journal.
  • keep a ~ ; read one’s ~ ; in one’s ~
  • cf. dairy: a place on a farm where milk is kept and butter and cheese are made. dairy farm / ~ maid/ ~ products
slide17

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • crinkly: adj. having many thin folds; ( of hair) curly
  • My shirts were all crinkly when I got them out of the suitcase.
  • He stared at the old man’s crinkly face.
  • Her hair is a bit crinkly, which makes her look much prettier.
slide18

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • crinkle: n. a thin fold, esp. in your skin or on cloth, paper, etc.
  • cf: wrinkle: n.
  • 1. a line on your face or skin that you get when you are old: ~s around the eyes
  • 2. a small untidy fold in a piece of clothing or paper
  • wrinkled: adj. skin, cloth or paper that is wrinkled has lines or small untidy folds in it
  • wrinkly: n. an impolite expression meaning someone who is old
slide19

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • be supposed to
  • 1) have a duty or responsibility to do sth.; ought to
  • You are not supposed to smoke in here.
  • He was supposed to give us advice, but all he came up with were airy-fairy ideas.
  • I was supposed to meet her, but I spaced out and forgot.
  • 2) be generally considered to be; have the reputation of being
  • I haven’t seen it myself, but it is supposed to be a very good film.
  • She is supposed to be the best-dressed woman.
slide20

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • gee:
  • 1) interjection. Am. used to show that you are surprised or annoyed:
  • Gee, Mum, do we have to go?
  • 2) v. gee up: infml. To encourage someone to try harder
  • The team needs a captain who can gee them up a bit.
  • The teacher geed up the students failed in the mid-exam.
slide21
be through (with sb. or sth).:
  • infml. 1) to have finished doing sth, using sth.
  • I’m not through with my homework yet.
  • When are you supposed to be through with reading the book?
  • 2) to no longer having a relationship with someone.
  • That’s it. Simon and I are through.
  • 3) to have stopped doing sth. or using sth. that is bad
  • He says he’s through with drugs but it’s just not that easy.
  • throw away: to cast away: get rid of ( sth. not wanted or needed); discard
slide22

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • plenty:
  • 1) pron. a large quantity or number; enough or more than enough
  • If you want some more chairs, there are plenty more here.
  • 2) adv. quite; very; to quite a large degree
  • I’m plenty hungry. I need to have a big meal at once.
  • attic: n. a space or room under the roof of a house often used for storing things
  • [cf. cellar: a room under a house or other building, often used for storing things]
slide23

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • scornful: adj. showing contempt for; showing strong and sometimes angry disrespect towards sb. or sth. that is regarded as worthless
  • His scornful laugh greatly embarrassed me.
  • They remained scornful of all our attempts to find a solution.
  • a scornful look/remark/laugh/toneThey are openly scornful of the new plans
slide24

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • scorn:
  • 1) n.[u] the feeling that someone or something is stupid or not as good as other people or things; contempt
  • They had nothing but scorn for their working-class parents.
  • 2) v. to refuse to accept ideas, suggestions etc because you think they are stupid, old-fashioned or unreasonable

scornfully: adv.

slide25

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • mechanical: adj.
  • 1) of or moved, worked, or produced by machinery
  • The factory manufactures a variety of mechanical products.
  • a mechanical deviceThe company produces mechanical parts for airplane engines.The plane appeared to have crashed because of a mechanical problem.2) done without feeling or thought; (done) from habit rather than will
  • He was asked the same question so many times that his answer became mechanical.
  • He greeted me in a mechanical way by using mechanical compliments.
  • I was taught to read in a mechanical way.
  • [cf. mechanic: n. someone who is skilled at repairing motor vehicles and machinery]
slide26

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • sorrowfully: adv. sadly; in a sad manner; feeling or showing sadness, grief or unhappiness over loss or wrong-doing
  • The old man cried sorrowfully for her misfortune.
  • The woman said sorrowfully that she had been deceived.
  • With a sorrowful sigh she folded the letter and put it away.sorrow( n/ v)—sorrowful—sorrowfully
slide27

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • inspector: n. an official who inspects sth.
  • A ticket inspector got on the train.
  • As a taxi inspector, he is highly responsible for his work.
  • dial: n. the face of an instrument, such as a clock/ watch, showing measurements by means of pointer and figures; the wheel on an old-fashioned telephone with numbered holes for the fingers, which is moved round when one makes a telephone call. It can be used as a verb.
slide28

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • slot: n. a long straight narrow opening or hollow place, esp. in a machine or tool
  • Put a coin into the slot of the vending machine, and you can get a cup of coffee.
  • There is a mail-slot in the door and you can put a note or letter in it.
  • a punch code: a computer system of words, letters, numbers, etc.
  • punch:
  • 1) n the action of pressing a key or button in order to activate a device or perform an operation
  • 2) v. to hit sb. or sth. hard with your fist.
  • ~ sb. in / on sth.
  • to push a button or key on a machine
slide29

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • disappointed: adj. ( about, at, in, with) unhappy at not seeing hopes come true
  • He was deeply disappointed at losing the race.
  • My parents will be disappointed if I fail the exam.
  • I was disappointed to hear that they were not coming.
slide30

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • superior: adj ( ~ to)
  • 1) of a higher rank or class; better in quality or value
  • She often feels superior to others in her class.
  • This book is superior to that one.
  • 2) of high quality
  • This is a very superior make of car.
  • Superior goods are very popular among the customers.
  • [n. superiority; ant. inferior; ]
slide31

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • loftily: adv. haughtily; in a manner that shows one is better than other people
  • That man behaves loftily and turns down any request for help.
  • lofty: adj.
  • 1) seeming to think you are better than other people: a lofty manner
  • 2) lofty ideas, beliefs, attitudes etc. are of unusually high moral quality
  • 3) very high ( mountains, buildings)
slide32

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • pronounce: v.
  • 1) make the sound of a letter, a word. Etc.
  • 2) declare, esp. officially or after consideration
  • The doctor pronounced the man dead.
  • The priest said, “I now pronounce you man and wife.”
  • The jury pronounced him guilty.He gazed vacantly while the verdict and sentence were pronounced.
slide33

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • regular: adj.
  • 1) happening or appearing with the same amount of time or space between each one and the next
  • His pulse is not regular.
  • Plant the seeds at regular intervals.
  • 2) happening, coming or doing sth. again and again at the same time each day, week, month, etc.
  • We keep regular working hours.
  • Mr. Smith is a regular customer of the small store.
  • regular—regularly—regularity -- irregular
slide34

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • dispute: v.
  • 1) ( about, over, with) argue about sth. esp. angrily and for a long time
  • The two governments disputed over the ownership of the territory.
  • The question was hotly disputed in the Senate.
  • Few would dispute his status as the finest artist of the period.The circumstances of her death have been hotly disputed.
slide35

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • 2) disagree about or question the truth or correctness of
  • Few would dispute that travel broadens the mind.
  • n. be beyond dispute: everyone agrees that it is true or that it really happened
  • be in / under dispute: people don’t agree about facts that are in / under dispute.
  • be in dispute with sb. to disagree publicly with another person or group.
slide36

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • adjust: v.change slightly, esp. in order to make right or suitable for a particular purpose or situation
  • Check and adjust the brakes regularly.
  • It takes time for them to adjust themselves to the tropical heat.
  • As a teacher you have to adjust your methods to suit the needs of slower children.
  • adj. adjustable; n. adjustment
slide37

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • nonchalantly: adv. indifferently, coldly, not feeling excited or in a way to behave calmly and seem not to worry or care about anything
  • He reacted nonchalantly to my suggestion.
  • She treated me nonchalantly when I visited her.
  • She looked at me nonchalantly
  • adj. nonchalant: He was leaning against the wall, trying to look nonchalant.
  • nonchalance: n. [U]
slide38

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • tuck: v.
  • 1) put sth. into a small space, esp. in order to protect or hide it [ always + adv./ prep.]
  • I tucked the letter into my bag.
  • He had a book tucked under his arm.
  • 2) push the edge of a piece of cloth or paper into sth so that it looks tidier
  • Tuck your gloves in your pocket so that you don't lose them.She had a doll tucked under her arm.Eventually I found the certificate tucked under a pile of old letters..
slide39

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • light up:
  • 1) ignite; (cause to ) start to burn; give light to
  • A brilliant sun lit up their rooms .
  • The stage was lit up by several powerful spotlights.
  • A flare lit up the night sky.
  • Because of the great speed of light, we see a lamp light up almost at the exact moment we turn it on
  • 2) cause to become bright with pleasure or excitement
  • Suddenly, a smile lit up her face when she heard the news.
  • Her face lit up with joy when she saw him coming.
slide40

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • fraction:n. ( in mathematics) a division or part of a whole number
  • The boy is very good at adding fractions.
  • One forth is a proper fraction.
  • The car stopped within a fraction of an inch of the wall.
  • [cf. algebra; geometry; ]
slide41

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • insert: v. place or put sth. in/into sth. else
  • He inserted a sheet of paper into the printer.
  • Insert an IC card before making a call in a telephone booth.
  • She inserted the key into the lock.
  • Insert a diskette into one of your computer's disk drive, as describe on page1 .
slide42

While-reading: (III) Language points

  • proper:adj. right, correct, suitable
  • She needs proper medical attention at a hospital.
  • This is not a proper word here.
  • socially correct or acceptable
  • That short dress is not proper for this formal occasion.
  • sigh:n. a slow deep breath with a sound expressing sadness, tiredness or satisfaction
  • v. make/ produce such a sound
slide43

While-reading: (IV)Difficult sentences

(IV)Difficult sentences

  • 1. …the mechanical teacher calculated the mark in no time.
  • --the computer which served as a teacher immediately worked out the mark.
  • 2. She had been hoping they would take the teacher away altogether.
  • -- She had been hoping that they would move or carry the mechanical teacher to another place once for all.
slide44

III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items

  • III. Post-Reading
  • (I) Grammatical items:

Note the italicized parts in the following sentences.

  • It was a very oldbook.
  • They turned thepages.
  • Our television screen must have a million books on it and it's good for plenty more.
  • What’s there to write about school?
slide45

III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items

  • The part Margie hated most was the slot where she had to put homework and test papers.
  • He was a round little man with a red face and a whole box of tools with dials and wires.
  • A man isn’t smart enough.
  • But my mother says a teacher has to be adjusted to fit the minds of each boy and girl it teaches and each kid has to be taught differently.
slide46

III. Post-Reading: (I) Grammatical items

  • 5. needn’t have v-ed
  • needn’t have v-ed 表示过去做了某事,但没有做的必要,意为“本没必要…”。例如:
  • You needn’t have waken me up; I don’t have to go to work today.
  • 注:表示推测过去某动作发生的可能性时,就表示的可能性程度而言,must最大,could其次,may更次之,might最小。例如:
  • “I wonder how Tom knew about your past.”
  • “He must / could / may / might have heard of it from Mary.”
slide47

III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises

  • III. Post-Reading:
  • (II)Translation Exercises
  • 一个由外交部长率领的政府代表团昨天抵达非洲,开始对该国进行为期三天的友好访问。(head)
  • Yesterday a government delegation headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs arrived in South Africa and began a three-day friendly visit to the country.
  • 看看这些讽刺社会弊端的漫画真是很有意思,令人捧腹大笑。(awfully funny)
  • It is awfully funny and splits you sides with laughter to observe these caricatures which satirize social ills.
slide48

III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises

  • 计算机是最有用的教学工具之一,所有的功课以及所有的问题和答案都可以在屏幕上显示出来。(show on a screen)
  • Computers are one of the most useful teaching aids, for all your lessons as well as all the questions asked and all the answers provided can be shown on a screen.
  • 小张的母亲前天突然病倒,他赶紧派人请来医生给他母亲治疗.(send for)
  • As soon as his mother fell ill suddenly the day before yesterday, Xiao Zhang sent for a doctor, who came and diagnosed and treated his mother.
slide49

III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises

  • 他去年高考失败,但他并没有感到沮丧,继续努力,今年考上了一所名牌大学。(disappoint)
  • He failed in the college entrance examination last year, but he did not feel disappointed. Instead, he continued to study hard, passed the examination successfully and became a student in a famous university this year.
  • 这个中学生有许多英语单词发音不准,必须狠下工夫,学好音标,掌握标准的语音。(pronounce)
  • There are many English words that this middle school student cannot pronounce correctly. Therefore, he has to make great effort to learn the phonetic symbols well and acquire standard English pronunciation.
slide50

III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises

  • 在这个知识爆炸,信息爆炸的年代,我们必须不断学习,注意知识更新,才能适应专业工作的需要。(become adjusted to)
  • In this new era marked by knowledge explosion, we have to pursue constant study and take particular care to renew our knowledge. Only thus, can we become adjusted to the requirements of our specialized work.
  • 那男孩把衬衫塞进裤腰里,将皮包夹在腋下,看上去俨然一副老板模样。(tuck)
  • With his shirt tucked into the top of his trousers and a leather bag tucked under his arm, the boy looked just like a boss.
slide51

III. Post-Reading: (II)Translation Exercises

  • 这个女孩虽然只有8岁,但已经擅长计算分数了。难怪他父母为她感到自豪。(fraction)
  • Although she is only eight years old, the little girl is already very good at calculating fractions. No wonder her parents feel very proud of her.
  • 街坊四邻都已经听说了那个消息了,而你却没有听说,你说怪不怪?(neighborhood)
  • All the neighborhood have heard about the news, but you haven’t. Don't you think it is very strange?
slide52

III. Post-Reading: (III) Oral activities

  • (III) Oral activities

Discuss with one of your classmates on the following topics.

    • Your opinions about the future world’s school / education
    • The advantages and disadvantages of the fact that people are getting more and more dependent on computers.
    • Changes and challenges of the present educational system in China.
slide53

III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing

(IV) Writing

Write a short essay on the following topic in about 150 words.

  • In the future, students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you prefer?
slide54

III. Post-Reading: (IV) Writing

  • If I had a choice between studying at home using computers and television or studying in a traditional school setting, I'd choose the traditional setting. Maybe it's just what I'm used to, but I don't think that technology can replace teachers and classrooms.
  • After all, technology can fail. Computers go down and computer programs crash. Televisions break, and the electricity can suddenly go off. In those situations, who's going to teach me? If I'm at school, and the television or the computers stop functioning, there's a teacher to step in and change the lesson plan. Teachers can draw on their teaching experience and be creative. Computers and televisions can't.
slide55
I'd also miss the chance to interact with other students if I weren't going to school. I think learning to play and work with other people is one of the most important lessons we learn in school. It prepares us for life, and for working with other people. Being with other people also helps us discover who we are.
  • Another concern I have about studying at home is getting distracted. It's strange, but I think being home alone is more distracting than being at school with a lot of people. At school, we're all focused on the same subjects. At home, it would be so easy to turn off the computer or the television and go do something else. I might tell myself that it's okay to play a computer game now and make up the study hours later. Chances are, I'd never make up the study hours.
  • I'm all in favor of using technology in the classroom. I think computers and television are great ways for students to have access to a lot of information. I just don't think they should be the only tools I have as a student. I also need teachers and other students to help me get a complete
b text two

Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension

B. Text two
  • (I) Questions for text comprehension
  • Why does the author envy such professions as bookkeepers and writers?
  • He thinks that the nature of all these professions is clear and needs no further explanation.
  • What does the author say about his talents in the field of mime and elocution?
  • His talents in the field of mime and elocution are not good enough to meet the requirements of an actor.
slide57

Text two: (I) Questions for text comprehension

  • What can we infer from the passage about the author’s occupation?
  • He is most probably a professional laugher, imitating the laughter of different kinds of people and of different occasions.
  • Why does the author mention the skill of repairing shoes?
  • He wants to stress that skill comes from practice.
slide58

Text two: (II) Language points

  • (II) Language points
  • the fine points of my art-- the impressively detailed techniques of my laughing that requires great skill, talent, or precision
  • In my breast I harbor the laughter of America … yellow laughter-- I have acquired the skill of imitating the laughter of people of different nationalities.
  • punch lines-- the last few words of a joke or story that give meaning to the whole and cause amusement or surprise
  • claque--a group of people hired to give support by clapping at a performance
  • marzipan --a sweet paste made of ground almonds and sugar, often with egg whites or yolks, used as a layer in cakes or molded into ornamental shapes