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Speech Perception. Dynamics of Speech Perception of English speech sounds. Cues for manner-place-voicing Suprasegmentals Context dependence Categorical perception Hearing Loss and speech perception. Dynamics of Speech. intensity frequency suprasegmentals. Dynamics of Speech.

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speech perception
Speech Perception
  • Dynamics of Speech
  • Perception of English speech sounds.
  • Cues for manner-place-voicing
  • Suprasegmentals
  • Context dependence
  • Categorical perception
  • Hearing Loss and speech perception

Speech Perception

dynamics of speech
Dynamics of Speech
  • intensity
  • frequency
  • suprasegmentals
dynamics of speech1
Dynamics of Speech
  • intensity
    • whisper - 20 dB HL
    • normal conversational speech - 50 to 60 dB HL
    • loud speech - 70 dB HL
    • shouting - 90 dB HL
dynamics of speech2
Dynamics of Speech
  • frequency
    • about 250 to 8000 Hz
    • most important speech sounds -

500 through 6000 Hz

perception of english speech sounds
Perception of English Speech Sounds
  • Vowels
  • Diphthongs
  • Semivowels
  • Nasal consonants
  • Stop/plosives
  • Fricatives and affricates

Speech Perception

vowels
Vowels
  • Most important cue is relationship between the F1 & F2 formant frequencies.

Speech Perception

vowels1
Vowels
  • Other cues
    • For high-front vowels: F3 formant
    • For low-back vowels: A strong F1 frequency
    • Contextual cues

Speech Perception

vowels2
Vowels

Speech Perception

diphthongs
Diphthongs
  • Most important cue is gliding formants

Speech Perception

diphthongs1
Diphthongs
  • Specifically …
  • Rate of frequency change. The faster the rate of change the easier it is to perceive
  • Brief steady state formant pattern at the beginning and the end of the diphthong also improves perception.
    • I.e., tense monothongs are more difficult to perceive because they lack the long steady state formant.

Speech Perception

diphthongs2
Diphthongs

Speech Perception

semivowels
Semivowels
  • Glides -----> /j/ and /w/
  • Liquids -----> /r/ and /l/
  • As with diphthongs, perception relies on vowel formant transitions.
  • Most important transition is F2
  • For /r/ and /l/, the F3 formant is also important
  • Semivowels differ from diphthongs since they have more rapid F2 transitions which makes them consonant like.

Speech Perception

semivowels continued
Semivowels (continued)

Speech Perception

nasals
Nasals
  • Most important decisions when perceiving nasals.
    • Is the speech segment nasal or non-nasal?
    • If it is a nasal, which nasal is it?
  • Important Cues
    • Transition between nasal and adjacent vowel
    • Weakening of upper formants
    • Lengthening of nasal tract causes primary resonant frequency to drop from 500 to about 250 Hz.
    • Lowering of intensity when compared to vowels.

Speech Perception

nasals continued
Nasals (continued)

Speech Perception

nasals continued1
Nasals (continued)
  • In perceiving specific nasals the most important cues are…
  • Transition to and from adjacent vowels are similar to different stops…
    • /m/ same as /p-b/
    • /n/ same as /t-d/
    • “ng” same as /k-g/

Speech Perception

nasals continued2
Nasals (continued)
  • Frequency cues in F2 transition from adjoining vowels
    • /m/ lowest in frequency and shortest in duration
    • /n/ higher in frequency and a bit longer in duration
    • /ng/ highest in frequency and shortest in duration.

Speech Perception

nasals continued3
Nasals (continued)
  • Resonance and anti-resonant patterns are different for different nasals. This is important for discriminating between /m/ and /n/, but not important for perceiving /ng/
  • Nasal murmur

Speech Perception

stops
Stops
  • Manner-place of articulation-voicing are important cues.

Speech Perception

stops manner
Stops (manner)
  • Cues for manner
    • Oral occlusion is heard either as a …
      • Silence in the voiceless stop /p-t-k/
      • Brief attenuation of sound in voiced stops /b-d-g/.
    • Stopped air is often released and heard as a plosive (i.e., and aperiodic sound source)
    • Stops have much shorter transition to and from adjacent vowels than semi-vowels.

Speech Perception

stops manner1
Stops (manner)

Speech Perception

stops place of articulation
Stops (place of articulation)
  • To review…
  • /p-b/ …. Bilabial
  • /t-d/ …. Alveolar
  • /k-g/ …. Velar (or palatal)

Speech Perception

stops place of articulation1
Stops (place of articulation)
  • Cues for place include …
  • Frequency position of the burst in relation to F1 and F2 formants.
      • When burst is above 3000 Hz, the sound is perceived as a /t/.
      • When burst is below F2 formant the vowel was perceived as a /p/, with the exception of high-back vowels.
      • When bust was just above F2 formant, phoneme perceived as a /k/

Speech Perception

stops place of articulation3
Stops (place of articulation)
  • F2 transition. Depending upon direction of transition, different stop plosives will be perceived. Refer to previous slide.

Speech Perception

stops voicing
Stops (voicing)
  • Voicing cues include
  • Low frequency voice bar.

Speech Perception

stops voicing1
Stops (voicing)
  • Presence of aspiration
  • Onset of F1 Formant for a following vowel (F1 cutback)

Speech Perception

stops voicing2
Stops (voicing)

Speech Perception

stops voicing3
Stops (voicing)
  • Voice onset time (VOT)
    • Longer the VOT prior to a vowel and after a stop… the more likely you will perceive it as voiceless.
  • Vowel duration preceding stop.
    • Longer duration of vowel, the more likely it will be perceived as voiced.

Speech Perception

summary
Summary

Speech Perception