Adult Speech Perception . Chris Darwin. Place of articulation. Labial. Alveolar. Velar. b. d. g. Stop. Voiced. p. t. k. Stop. Voiceless. ng. m. n. Nasal. Voiced. Wide and narrowband spectrograms. Wave. Wide. Narrow. Voice-Onset Time (VOT). bit. pit. 5 ms. 40 ms.
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<-- F 3
<-- F 2
<-- Formant transitions ------->
“w e g o”
1. Set up a continuum of sounds between two categories
/ba/ - /da/
1 ... 3 … 5 … 7
1. Sharp phoneme boundary
2. Discrimination peak at phoneme boundary
3. Discrimination predicted from identification
(only “different” if different phoneme)
• Occurs for many consonant continua
Even with “proper” discrimination paradigms
• Less evident for vowel continua
Voicing and place-of-articulation dimensions show these natural categories.
Sinex, D. G. and McDonald, L. P. (1989). "Synchronized discharge rate representation of voice-onset time in the chinchilla auditory nerve," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 1995-2004.
Sinex, D. G., McDonald, L. P. and Mott, J. B. (1991). "Neural correlates of nonmonotonic temporal acuity for voice onset time," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2441-9.
Infants born with ability to make many speech discriminations that they can subsequently NOT make (see next lecture)
Adults (and 1-year-old infants) have lost the ability to make distinctions that their language does not use.
1 ... 5 … 10 … 15
Miyawaki et al (1975) Perception & Psychophysics18 331-340
Iverson, P., et al. (2003). "A perceptual interference account of acquisition difficulties for non-native phonemes," Cognition 87, B47-57.
Physical Spacing of Stimuli
…and rated the similarity of stimulus pairs
Is this still something specific to speech?NO!! QUAILS DO IT TOO !!!Lotto, Kluender & Holt (1997) J.Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 1134-1140
So may reflect a general auditorycontrast effect.i.e. the auditory representation of the [d] sound is different after an [r] than after an[l].Lotto & Kluender (1998) Perc & Psychophys. 60, 602-619
Fowler, C. A., Brown, J. M. and Mann, V. A. (2000). "Contrast effects do not underlie effects of preceding liquids on stop-consonant identification by humans," J. exp. Psychol.: Hum. Perc. & Perf. 26, 877-888.
McGurk effect experiment shows compensation for coarticulation by listeners when neither frequency contrast nor masking can be the source of the compensations.
watch it on YouTube
da or ga
Vision:either ar or al
Still get shift in d/g boundary, so not auditory contrast.
Fowler’s effect due to McGurk effect caused by visual
input concurrent with test syllable, NOT precursor.