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langston psycholinguistics lecture 3 n.
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Speech perception

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  1. Langston Psycholinguistics Lecture 3 Speech perception

  2. Plan • Top-down • Comprehension • Bottom-up

  3. Plan • Our goal is to start with the input and see how far we can take it. • Constraint satisfaction problem. • We will introduce top-down influences when the situation demands it.

  4. What is speech? • Levels of analysis: • Acoustic: The physical speech signal. • Articulatory: How it's made. • Phones: Individual sounds (approximately 4000 available, about 869 in some language, about 100 account for most, Kluender, 1994). • Phonemes: Mental representation of sounds or sounds that affect meaning. Often made up of several phones treated as alike (keep cool).

  5. What is speech? • Levels of analysis: • Phonemes: Not all differences in sounds are phonemic (pin spin). Allophones: Set of phones treated as identical by a language. • Changing a phoneme will change the meaning (bit pit). • You can map a language's phonemes by looking for minimal pairs.

  6. What is speech? • Levels of analysis: • Phonemes: Languages seem to choose phonemes to maximize distinctiveness: • (Kluender, 1994)

  7. What is speech? • Levels of analysis: • Morphemes: Units that actually have meaning (we'll come to these later).

  8. Articulatory Phonetics • Based on how sounds are produced. • A consonant is: • Air + • Voicing (on or off) + • Manner (some form of disruption) + • Place (where the disruption happens)

  9. Articulatory Phonetics • The places:

  10. Articulatory Phonetics • Here's a link to a map with a clickable glossary: http://www.sil.org/mexico/ling/glosario/E005ci-PlacesArt.htm

  11. Articulatory Phonetics • The manners: • Plosive (stop): Completely stop the air flow. • Fricative: Interrupt the air flow and create friction. • Affricate: Stop released to a fricative. • Nasal: Stop with sound coming out the nasal passages. • Flap: Brief stoppage. • Trill: Hold it in place and let it vibrate.

  12. Articulatory Phonetics • The manners: • Approximant: Like a fricative, little obstruction. • Liquids: Central (flow over the middle of the tongue) or lateral (flow around the sides of the tongue). • Glides: Similar to a vowel but with the tongue creating a small amount of turbulence (also called semivowels).

  13. Articulatory Phonetics • IPA table:

  14. Articulatory Phonetics • English:

  15. Articulatory Phonetics • English: • Bilabial: • Stop: voiced bin, unvoiced pin • Nasal: man • Approximants: wind • Labiodental: • Fricative: voiced vat, unvoiced fat • Dental: • Fricative: voiced then, unvoiced thin

  16. Articulatory Phonetics • English: • Alveolar: • Stop: voiced dip, unvoiced tip • Nasal: nap • Flap: city • Fricative: voiced zap, unvoiced sap • Approximants: central rip, lateral lip • Post-alveolar: (palatal?) • Fricative: voiced azure, unvoiced sure • Affricate: voiced jug, unvoiced chug

  17. Articulatory Phonetics • English: • Palatal: • Approximant: your • Velar: • Stop: voiced got, unvoiced cot • Nasal: sing • Glottal: • Stop: satin • Fricative: hen

  18. Articulatory Phonetics • A vowel is: • Part: front, center, back + • Height: High, mid, low

  19. Articulatory Phonetics • English:

  20. Articulatory Phonetics • English: • Front: beet, bit, baby, bet, bat • Central: hut, sofa, bird, heater • Back: boot, book, bode, bought, hot

  21. Articulatory Phonetics • English: • Also dipthongs: cute, bite, bough, boy • Also suprasegmentals (added on to the vowels): • Stress: blackbird, blackbird • Length • Tone contour

  22. Acoustic Phonetics • You can use a spectrograph to produce a spectrogram. This is a graphic representation of speech.

  23. Acoustic Phonetics • If you download Praat you can produce your own spectrograms relatively easily. Get Praat here: http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/

  24. Acoustic Phonetics • The acoustic approach is to analyze the physical speech signal without making reference to how it was produced.

  25. As an aside, we can think about vision for a minute… • [D/H= tan(θ)]

  26. Acoustic Phonetics • Formant: “a concentration of acoustic energy around a particular frequency in the speech wave” (Praat Tutorial, see next page for link).

  27. Acoustic Phonetics • You can learn more about formants in the Praat tutorial here: http://person2.sol.lu.se/SidneyWood/praate/whatform.html

  28. Acoustic Phonetics • Formant transition: A sharp rise or fall in a formant. Usually a consonant.

  29. Acoustic Phonetics • Steady state: Part of a formant with little or no change. Generally vowels.

  30. Acoustic Phonetics • The darker the band the more energy there is there. • You can see sounds change over time by going from left to right.

  31. Acoustic Phonetics • Problems for perception: • Parallel transmission: You do not produce phonemes like beads on a necklace. Instead, you are transmitting overlapping parts of phonemes in parallel (Easter eggs).

  32. Acoustic Phonetics • Problems for perception: • Parallel transmission:

  33. Acoustic Phonetics • Problems for perception: • Context conditioned variation: Each phoneme is affected by surrounding phonemes (lack of invariance).

  34. Acoustic Phonetics • Problems for perception: • Context conditioned variation:

  35. How Does Perception Work? • From Kerzel & Bekkering (2000; doi:10.1037/0096-1523.26.2.634): • Direct realism: “listeners to speech recover information about the articulatory activities of the vocal tract from various sources of information” (p. 635). • But: Not motor based. The articulators structure the “informational medium.”

  36. How Does Perception Work? • From Kerzel & Bekkering (2000): • Direct realism: “when the ear of the listener is stimulated by the acoustic medium, the structure is imparted and the listener perceives the speaker's gestures” (p. 635). • Can also come from structuring of optic medium. • Direct perception.

  37. Example 1 http://sunburn.stanford.edu/~nick/compdocs/, click on Practical HI Examples.pdf

  38. Examples 4 & 5 http://www.baddesigns.com/file.html http://www.baddesigns.com/sidewalk.html

  39. How Does Perception Work? • Direct realism: • Carello, Anderson, & Kunkler-Peck (1998; doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00040): Information in the auditory signal can be used to recover information about lengths of dowels (I'll be dropping some dowels).

  40. How Does Perception Work? Carello, Anderson, & Kunkler-Peck (1998, p. 212)

  41. How Does Perception Work? Carello, Anderson, & Kunkler-Peck (1998, p. 212)

  42. How Does Perception Work? • Direct realism: • Kunkler-Peck & Turvey (2000; doi:10.1037/0096-1523.26.1.279): Auditory information can also be used to recover information about an object's shape.

  43. How Does Perception Work? • Direct realism: • To sum up: The signal contains sufficient structure to recover a distal property (shape). Speech could work the same way (the distal property is phonetic gesture).

  44. How Does Perception Work? • From Kerzel & Bekkering (2000): • Fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP): • “features are evaluated in terms of prototypes of syllables” (p. 635). • “degree of correspondence to the prototype is determined” (p. 635). • “the relative goodness of match of each prototype is evaluated, and the prototype with the best match is selected” (p. 635).

  45. How Does Perception Work? • From Kerzel & Bekkering (2000): • Fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP): • “speech perception is explained by a best-match procedure” (p. 635).

  46. How Does Perception Work? • From Galantucci, Fowler, & Turvey (2006): Motor theory of speech perception. 3 parts: • “speech processing is special” (p. 361) • “perceiving speech is perceiving vocal tract gestures” (p. 361) • “speech perception involves access to the speech motor system” (p. 361)

  47. How Does Perception Work? • “speech processing is special” • Perception of distal properties unique to speech. No. (See the shape stuff above.) • Recruitment of the motor system unique to speech. No. • Special neural hardware. Not enough evidence to tell, but probably no.

  48. How Does Perception Work? • “perceiving speech is perceiving vocal tract gestures” • “the objects of speech perception are the speakers' vocal tract gestures and not the acoustic patterns that the gestures generate in the air” (p. 365)

  49. How Does Perception Work? • “perceiving speech is perceiving vocal tract gestures” • When articulation and sound go their separate ways, which way does perception go? With articulation (di-du).