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The Cold War and Korea WWII ends somewhat successfully for the Allies Stalin (Communist) and the US and Britain (Capitalist/Democratic) were at odds politically had trouble dividing up control of Germany h ad conflict over rebuilding European countries ravaged by war.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Cold War and Korea

  • WWII ends somewhat successfully for the Allies
  • Stalin (Communist) and the US and Britain (Capitalist/Democratic) were at odds politically
    • had trouble dividing up control of Germany
    • had conflict over rebuilding European countries ravaged by war

Soviets promised to cooperate…

but everything crumbles

Soviets distrusted the US, the US thought the Soviets were trying to create a total Communist dictatorship (they were)

The conflict created is known as The Cold War

slide2

The Cold War

Western Bloc – the US and its Allies

Eastern Bloc – Communist nations led by the Soviet Union

slide3

It was a delicate balance between the two groups – the US already had atomic weapons – Stalin ordered Soviet scientists to develop them

slide4

Iron Curtain

  • Soviet Union tightens its grip on Eastern Europe
  • they’d driven Nazis out of Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Poland but instead of allowing elections (as they promised) Stalin

forced Communist pro-Soviet regimes there as well as East Germany

Why?

Soviets insisted they needed a buffer to protect themselves from the West

slide5

Truman Doctrine & Policy of Containment

  • American leaders were convinced of a policy of containment
  • to keep Russians under control
  • prevent the spread of Communism
  • strengthening non-Communist countries surrounding the Soviet Union
  • What does this lead to???
  • Truman Doctrine
    • asked the Federal government to aid free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures
        • (subjugation: forced submission to control by others)
  • commits to contain communism where it threatens to spread

What does this lead to???

slide6

The Marshall Plan

  • (presented by George C. Marshall – Truman’s Secretary of State)
  • Europe is a hot mess post- World War II
  • Marshall Plan proposes massive financial aid to rebuild economy and infrastructure in Europe
  • (Soviets saw it as an American ploy to spread

1:40

  • western ideas)
  • huge success – political stability was gained and created a fresh market for American goods and capitalist economies
slide7

1949 – China comes under communist control

  • Mao Zedong takes control of new People’s
  • Republic of China and allied with Stalin
  • Communism is spreading now to…
  • Korea
  • Korea had been divided among allies after WWII
  • North (above the 38th Parallel of Latitude) controlled by Soviets, south by democratic Allies
    • naturally, Soviets install a
    • communist dictatorship in
    • the north – which remains
    • today
slide8

1949 – North Korean dictator Kim Il-Sung invades South Korea. (his grandson, Kim Jong-

un is dictator today)

President Truman orders American troops to aid South Korean forces without a formal declaration of war from Congress.

Truman saw it as a “police action” to contain the spread of communism.

slide9

Americans with United Nations troops under the direction of General Douglas MacArthur (remember him???) lost badly in the 1st two months

MacArthur executed a daring plan – an amphibious landing and invasion at Inchon recapturing the capital of Seoul.

Video next slide

slide11

North Koreans were forced to retreat to their own territory pursued by MacArthur’s forces (YAY!)

MacArthur was prepared to press into China until… Mao Zedong sent 300,000 Chinese troops to the aid of North Korea. (YIKES!)

slide12

Macarthur and his forces are repelled to the South Korean border.

  • MacArthur (brazen, pompous egomaniac) calls for an all out attack on China – even proposes dropping atomic bombs on Chinese cities!
  • Truman is more concerned with Soviets in Europe and is therefore willing to negotiate an end to the conflict in Korea
  • As a result of this lack of aggression:
  • returned to prewar boundary of 38th parallel
  • turned into a bloody stalemate

MacArthur strongly and loudly criticized Truman’s policy of limited war

So…

slide13

President Truman fires General MacArthur for insubordination.

but MacArthur returns to the US a hero

MacArthur’s Farewell Speech to Congress

5:06

slide14

After negotiations, conflict in Korea ends with an armistice (cease-fire agreement) signed July 1953, establishing:

  • demilitarized zone (DMZ) along the 38th parallel where military troops are forbidden to enter
  • neither side won
    • 33K Americans killed
    • 600K S. Koreans killed
    • 1.5 million N. Korean and Chinese killed

military casualties

civilian casualty numbers are inconsistent

By fighting in Korea – the US proved it would stand up to communism