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Post WWII & The Cold War. SOL 12 C; 13 A-D. Nuremburg Trials. International court 1945-1946 in Nuremburg, Germany—tried Nazi leaders responsible for these murders in the concentration comps—22 officials were charged; 12—executed; 7—life imprisonment; 3--acquitted.

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Post WWII & The Cold War


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    1. Post WWII & The Cold War SOL 12 C; 13 A-D

    2. Nuremburg Trials • International court 1945-1946 in Nuremburg, Germany—tried Nazi leaders responsible for these murders in the concentration comps—22 officials were charged; 12—executed; 7—life imprisonment; 3--acquitted

    3. Goering (left) and Hess (right) during their criminal trials at Nuremberg in 1946 

    4. Post WWII United Nations Aug. 1944—Reps. From G.B., S.U., China and U.S… New York-N.A. headquarters • Create a body to prevent future global wars; promote equal rights and self-determination of peoples • Human Rights.wmv

    5. Yalta Conference • Purpose: to determine the fate of peace in Europe • To divide Germany and its capital into 4 occupation zones • US, GB, and France unified zones create West Germany and West Berlin (democratic) • SU’s zones became E Germany and E Berlin (communist)

    6. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1998/09/germany/east.west/germany.berlin.east.west.jpghttp://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1998/09/germany/east.west/germany.berlin.east.west.jpg • Division of Germany—and Division of Berlin

    7. Effects of the Conference • Began feelings of mistrust • Divided Europe btwn democracy and communism • Created Stalin’s desire for a buffer zone

    8. Post WWII • Dominated by Soviet Union • Didn’t adopt democratic ideals Germany divided into: East Germany

    9. Post WWII West Germany • Resumed self govt after a few yrs of Amer., Br, & Fr. Occupation • Became democratic • Emerged with economic power

    10. Post WWII Berlin Airlift Berlin Airlift and formation of Nato.wmv • Soviets held East Berlin hostage • USA & Britain flew supplies over Berlin • Stalin lifted blockade May 1949

    11. http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter16/images/airlift.jpghttp://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter16/images/airlift.jpg

    12. Post WWII Berlin Wall-1961 Berlin Wall.wmv • Divided Berlin into East & West • Democratic & Communist • http://www.cnn.com/interactive/specials/9904/nato.timeline/content/07.berlin.wall.jpg

    13. IRON CURTAIN • Countries behind Iron Curtain are shaded red. • Winston Churchill • “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe.”

    14. Post WWII Europe Marshall Plan- Massive American financial aid Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan.wmv • Lay in ruins • (USA) provided lots of $$$$ to rebuild Europe & prevent the spread of communism

    15. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/03/maps/images/1948.marshall.gifhttp://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/03/maps/images/1948.marshall.gif

    16. Containment: a policy for preventing the expansion of communism • After WWII—U.S. policy=containment • Development of alliances against Soviet and Chinese aggression • Led to armed conflict in Korea and Vietnam • U.S. tried to contain or restrict communism to those countries of the world where it already existed

    17. Cold War Truman Doctrine Promise that the U.S. would defend free peoples Policy of Containment.wmv • “containment of communism” • Keep communism from spreading • “Domino Theory”

    18. Deterrence vs. Detente • Deterrence • the act of deterring, especially deterring a nuclear attack by the capacity or threat of retaliating. • Détente • 1970’s—relaxation in international affairs during the Cold War • SALT—Strategic Arms Limitation Talks—agreed to limit number of stockpiled weapons

    19. Cold War North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)—North American headquarters in Norfolk! • Defensive alliance among the USA & western Europe to prevent Soviet expansion

    20. http://nato.usmission.gov/icons/q-map.gif

    21. Cold War Warsaw Pact • Soviet allies in eastern Europe form this as a response to NATO

    22. http://www.fritirak.dk/billeder/fidel_castro.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/57/FidelGuerilla.JPGhttp://www.fritirak.dk/billeder/fidel_castro.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/57/FidelGuerilla.JPG

    23. The Cold War & Cuba • 1950s Fidel Castro: communist revolution • Cubans fled to Florida to escape communist rule • Pres. Eisenhower encouraged the CIA to train exiles & attempt to overthrow Castro (Bay of Pigs Invasion) • Bay of Pigs.wmv

    24. The Cold War & Cuba • President Kennedy approved the Bay of Pigs invasion…. • It was a complete disaster—within two days Castro’s army had captured or killed most of the American supported invaders

    25. Cold War “massive retaliation” • Under Pres. Eisenhower • S.U. matched the USA in nuclear weaponry • Purpose was to prevent a nuclear strike by the Soviets

    26. Post WWII Japan • Occupied by American forces under MacArthur’s administration • Adopted democratic gov’t with economic growth (dominate Asia’s economy) • Resumed self govt & became a strong ally of the USA • Elimination of Japanese offensive military capabilities

    27. Post WWII • China • Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war 1949 • Chiang Kai-shek—Nationalist China (island of Taiwan) • Mao-Tse-tung—Communist China (mainland China)—participates in Korean conflict

    28. Cold War • China taken over by communists increases Amer. Fears of communism • China & the Soviet Union become bitter rivals—Nixon exploits this! • Pres. Nixon visits communist China

    29. http://www.nndb.com/people/110/000024038/richard-m-nixon-sm.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Nixon_meets_Mao_in_China_1972.gif/250px-Nixon_meets_Mao_in_China_1972.gifhttp://www.nndb.com/people/110/000024038/richard-m-nixon-sm.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/fd/Nixon_meets_Mao_in_China_1972.gif/250px-Nixon_meets_Mao_in_China_1972.gif

    30. Cold War • Lasted from the end of WWII until 1989 • USA: democratic, free market economy • Soviet Union: totalitarian govt, communist economy

    31. Korean War • 1950s; example of containment policy • Communist North Korea invaded South Korea • USA counterattacked North Korea • Start of Korean War.wmv

    32. Korean War • Communist Chinese forces helped North Korea • Ended in a stalemate • South Korea free from communism • 38th Parallel • MacArthur dismissed and Korean Armistice.wmv

    33. http://www.atpm.com/7.01/washington-dc/images/korean-war-memorial.jpghttp://www.atpm.com/7.01/washington-dc/images/korean-war-memorial.jpg

    34. http://www.iris-conventions.com/images/2003%20-%20Virginia/Washington%20DC/Korean%20War%20Memorial%2002.jpghttp://www.riley.army.mil/newspaper/Specials/Korean_War/images/back_1426.gifhttp://www.iris-conventions.com/images/2003%20-%20Virginia/Washington%20DC/Korean%20War%20Memorial%2002.jpghttp://www.riley.army.mil/newspaper/Specials/Korean_War/images/back_1426.gif

    35. Vietnam War • Example of containment policy • North Vietnam (communist) tried to take over South Vietnam (17th Parallel) • Ho Chi Minh--Leader • USA helped South Vietnam resist! • Today—Vietnam reunited communist country • Vietnam War.wmv

    36. http://www.vietaround.com/images/vietnam_map.gifhttp://4umi.com/image/people/John_F_Kennedy.jpghttp://www.vietaround.com/images/vietnam_map.gifhttp://4umi.com/image/people/John_F_Kennedy.jpg

    37. Vietnam War • Pres. John F. Kennedy began sending us over • Kennedy assassinated 1963 • Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson intensified our buildup

    38. Vietnam War • USA repeatedly defeated North Vietnamese but couldn’t force an end to the war! • USA was VERY divided over our involvement

    39. http://www.qconline.com/progress99/images/week2/chicago-lg.jpghttp://www.qconline.com/progress99/images/week2/chicago-lg.jpg

    40. Vietnam War • Richard Nixon elected as Pres. w/ pledge to end war! • “Vietnamization” replacing Amer. Troops w/ South Vietnamese troops • Failed; S.U. supplied North Viet • detente under Nixon.wmv

    41. http://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/resources/Private/Faculty/Fac_From1877ChapterDoc/ChapterImages/Ch30RichardNixon.jpghttp://mooreslore.corante.com/archives/images/vietnam%20war.jpghttp://www.etsu.edu/cas/history/resources/Private/Faculty/Fac_From1877ChapterDoc/ChapterImages/Ch30RichardNixon.jpghttp://mooreslore.corante.com/archives/images/vietnam%20war.jpg

    42. http://www.ronaldreaganweb.com/thesixties/images/vietnamwarsoldier.jpghttp://www.militarybadges.info/nz-army/images/svn1.jpghttp://www.ronaldreaganweb.com/thesixties/images/vietnamwarsoldier.jpghttp://www.militarybadges.info/nz-army/images/svn1.jpg

    43. Vietnam War • 1975 North & South Vietnam Communist! • Troops faced hostility when they came home!