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Lesson 9 The Interwar Years: Preparing for the Next War

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Lesson 9 The Interwar Years: Preparing for the Next War. Lesson Objectives.

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Lesson 9

The Interwar Years:

Preparing for the Next War

slide2
Lesson Objectives

•  Understand the major military lessons that each of the major combatants (Britain, France, US, Germany and Russia) took from World War I. •  Be able to describe and discuss the steps that each major combatant took to "prepare for the next war." •  Understand the military revolution that occurred during the interwar years. •  Be able to recount the major events in the 1930's that lead to war in Europe and the Pacific.

slide3
World War II

the Next War

Seeds of

Versailles Treaty

Lessons of World War I

Great Depression

slide4
Treaty of Versailles

Extremely harsh conditions

• Significant territorial concessions

• Huge reparations

• Severe limitations on military

• German admission of responsibility for war

slide5
Treaty of Versailles

Territorial Concessions

slide6
Treaty of Versailles

Reparations

• 269 billion gold marks ($64 B then, $834 B today)*

• Later reduced to 112 B gold marks ( $26.6 B) (1929)

• Equivalent to $360 B today *

Many feel this led to the economic collapse of the 1920’s that sewed the seeds of Fascism

* Based on CPI, 2012

slide7
Treaty of Versailles

Reparations Cycle

Germany Pays Reparations

To Britain & France

Crash of 1929

US Banks

Britain, France

Loan Money to Germany

Pay War Debts to US

slide8
Treaty of Versailles

Military Provisions

• German army restricted to 100,000 men (long term contract)

• No conscription or training

• No tanks or heavy artillery

• Navy limited to 15,000 men

• 6 small battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers, no U-boats

• No air force

slide9
Treaty of Versailles

War Guilt Clause

''The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.''

Article 231

slide10
Treaty of Versailles

Extremely harsh conditions

• Significant territorial concessions

• Huge reparations

• Severe limitations on military

• German admission of responsibility for war

slide11
Treaty of Versailles

 10:16

Video

slide12
Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

Germany: Offense!

Britain: Sea Power!

U.S.: Stay out of war altogether

slide13
Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

• Maginot Line: static defense

slide14
Maginot Line

"We could hardly dream of building a kind of Great Wall of France, which would in any case be far too costly. Instead we have foreseen powerful but flexible means of organizing defense, based on the dual principleof takingfull advantage of the terrainand establishing a continuous line of fireeverywhere."—December 10, 1929

André Maginot (1877-1932)

French Minister of War

(1922–1924, 1929–1930, 1931–1932)

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Maginot Line

"Whatever conception one can make of a future war, there is a necessity that remains imperious, it's to protect the territory from invasion. We know what disasters can accumulate so that victory itself isn't able to compensate for the irreparable damages. The defensive organization on the borders that we want to realize doesn't have any other goal than to block the way of a still possible invasion. Concrete is better in this way and is cheaper than a wall of chests..."

"Concrete is better … and is cheaper than a wall of chests..."

André Maginot (1877-1932)

French Minister of War

(1922–1924, 1929–1930, 1931–1932)

To the French Parliament, 1929

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Maginot Line

Rationale:

• To avoid a surprise attack and to give alarm (trip wire)

• To cover the mobilization of the French Army (2 and 3 weeks).

• To save manpower:

France 39,000,000 inhabitants, Germany 70,000,000

• To protect Alsace and Lorraine and their industrial infrastructure

• To be used as a basis for a counter-offensive.

slide17
Maginot Line

Defense in depth

… but not everywhere

slide18
Maginot Line

Localized Defense in Depth

slide19
Maginot Line

Above and Below

slide20
Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

• Maginot Line: static defense

• Huge expenditure

• Repeated mistake of 1914:

• assumed Belgian neutrality would be honored

• Had good armored forces

slide21
French Armor

Char B Heavy Tank

47 mm cannon

75 mm cannon

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French Armor

German PzKpfw II *

French Char B

Faster, better suspension, more range

Larger guns, heavier armor

Radios

One-man turret

Superior Tactics

* Panzerkampfwagen

slide23
Lessons of World War I

France: Defense!

• Maginot Line: static defense

• Huge expenditure

• Repeated mistake of 1914:

• Assumed Belgian neutrality would be honored

• Had good armored forces

• Not enough funds to develop properly

• Neglected innovations in tactics

slide24
Lessons of World War I

Germany: Offense!

Size of army limited by Versailles Treaty

• Not enough to defend against attack

• Strategy: “Best defense is good offense”

Capitalized on tactics under development in WW I

=Blitzkreige

• Stormtrooper tactics

+ Armor

Lightning War!

slide25
German Armor

Encyclopedia Britannica

slide26
Interwar Years

Maginot Line video

 11:39

slide27
Ten Military Revolutions

Infantry Revolution

Artillery Revolution

Revolution of Sail and Shot

Fortress Revolution

Gunpowder Revolution

Napoleonic Revolution

Land Warfare Revolution

Naval Revolution

Interwar Revolutions in Mechanization,

Aviation, and Information

Nuclear Revolution

Interwar Revolutions in Mechanization,

Aviation, and Information

Andrew F. Krepinevich

“Cavalry to computer: the pattern of military revolutions”

The National Interest, Fall 1994

slide28
Interwar Revolutions

1920’s – ’30’s

Perfected concepts introduced in WW I

• Mechanized warfare

• Aerial warfare

• Carrier aviation

• Amphibious warfare

• Radio-based command & control

Proliferation of new organizations

• Armored divisions,

• Carrier battle groups

• Strategic bombardment wings

slide29
Idealism

Reality

of World War I

“The War to End All War”

“Only the dead have seen the end of war”

slide30
Reality

of World War I

Hope

Renewed effort to limit war as an option

“Only the dead have seen the end of war”

New focus on the Laws of War

slide31
Laws of War

The Ultimate Oxymoron?

slide33
Treaties & Protocols

Precedents for the Laws of War

Kellogg – Briand Pact (1928)

• Renounced war as an instrument of national policy

• Negotiated between

• Fran B. Kellogg – US Secretary of State

• Aristide Briand – French Foreign Minister

• Ultimately 62 nations signed the agreement

• Failed in goal of preventing war

• First Violation: Japan in Manchuria (1931)

• Served as basis for concept of crime against peace

• Nuremburg Trails (1945-1949)

• Still in force

slide34
Treaties & Protocols

Precedents for the Laws of War

Geneva Convention (1928)

• Prohibit Use of Gas and Biological Methods of War

Geneva Convention (1929)

• Treatment of Prisoners of War

Geneva Convention (1949)

• I: Care of Sick and Wounded in the Field

• II: Care of Sick, Wounded and Shipwreck at Sea

• III: Treatment of Prisoners of War

• IV: Protection of Civilians in War

slide35
Treaties & Protocols

Precedents for the Laws of War

Geneva Convention (1975)

• Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction

slide36
Arms Limitation

Can be considered almost a separate branch of the Laws of War

Attempts to limit or ban entirely certain weapons

slide37
First Arms Limitation?

Crossbow

By 11th & 12th centuries, crossbows could penetrate armor of knights.

Threaten to upset the balance of power:

• Semi-skilled peasants could anonymously kill gentlemen

slide38
First Arms Limitation?

Crossbow

Banned by Pope Innocent II for use in killing Christians.

• Second Lateran Council 1139

slide39
First Arms Limitation

Second Lateran Council

Canon 29

“We prohibit under anathema that murderous art of crossbowmen and archers, which is hateful to God, to be employed against Christians and Catholics from now on.”

Pope Innocent II

EWTN: The Global Catholic Network

http://www.ewtn.com/library/COUNCILS/LATERAN2.HTM

slide40
Arms Limitation

Interest in arms limitation increased as war has become come mechanized and weapons more deadly and expensive

slide41
Arms Limitation

Early Attempt

St. Petersburg Declaration of 1868

“The Contracting Parties engage mutually to renounce, in case of war among themselves, the employment by their military or naval troops of any projectile of a weight below 400 grammes, which is either explosive or charged with fulminating or inflammable substances. “

Intent: Ban the use of fragmentation, explosive, or incendiary small arms ammunition. (Wikipedia)

Signatories: Austria-Hungary, Bavaria, Belgium, Denmark, France, the United Kingdom, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, the North German Confederation (i.e., Greater Prussia), Russia, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey (i.e.,the Ottoman Empire), and Württemberg.

Only binding during war between signatories.

US not invited (not considered a major power at the time), took no part in convention, never ratified it.

slide42
Arms Limitation

Modern Controversy

Just because you are not a signatory, should you still abide by a humanitarian arms limitation treaty?

slide43
Arms Limitation

Modern Controversy

Weapon: .50 cal McMillan Tactical Sniper Rifle

http://www.eme421.com/50calmac.html

Bullet: Raufoss Round

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raufoss_Mk_211

slide44
Arms Limitation

Modern Controversy

Video: Canadian Snipers

Afghanistan

Video

slide45
Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

• Response to post WW I naval building programs

• Limited tonnage, armament on capital ships and aircraft carriers

• Five major naval powers

• US, Britain, Japan, France, Italy

slide46
Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Limits on capital ships

• US: 525,000 tons

• Britain: 525,000 tons

• Japan: 315,000 tons

• France: 175,000 tons

• Italy: 175,000 tons

No capital ship could exceed 35,000 tons

Ratio 5 : 5 : 3 : 1.7 :1.7

Armament Limitation: 16-inch guns maximum

slide47
Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Limits on aircraft carriers

• US: 135,000 tons

• Britain: 135,000 tons

• Japan: 81,000 tons

• France: 60,000 tons

• Italy: 60,000 tons

Each nation could have two carriers up to 33,000 tons; remaining carriers limited to 27,000 tons each.

Armament Limitations: 8-inch guns (max of 8 per ship)

slide48
Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Other Limits:

• All other ships limited to

• 10,000 tons each (no limit on total tonnage)

• 8-inch guns or less

slide49
Arms Limitation

Washington Naval Treaty (1922)

Impact of Treaty:

• Navies modified existing capital ships

• Unusual designs evolved (treaty battleships, treaty cruisers) to remain within tonnage restrictions

• US built no battleships 1918-1937

• US concentrated on cruisers, aircraft carriers

slide50
Treaty Battleships

HMS Nelson

Displacement: 33,950 tons Main Armament: nine 16-inch guns

Post-Treaty:

USS North Carolina

Displacement: 35,000 tons Main Armament: nine 16-inch guns

slide51
Treaty Cruisers

USS Northampton CA-26

Displacement: 9,000 tons Main Armament: nine 8-inch guns

Post-Treaty:

USS Baltimore CA-68

WW II cruiser: more secondary armament

Displacement: 15,500 tons

slide52
Battle Cruisers

USS Lexington CC-1

Displacement: 43,500 tons Main Armament: eight 16-inch guns

slide53
Aircraft Carriers

USS Lexington CV-2

Displacement: 33,000 tons

Note: 8 in. guns

USN photo

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-l/cv2.htm

1929

slide54
Aircraft Carriers

USS Lexington CV-2

Note: 5 in. guns

Oct 1941

USN photo

http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-l/cv2.htm

slide55
Aircraft Carriers

USS Lexington CV-2

Displacement: 35,000 tons (wartime)

USS Essex CV-9

Displacement: 27,100 tons

slide56
Significance of Treaties

: still happened

Little impact on World War II

• No use of poison gas

slide57
Next:

Next:

Next:

Exam 1 - Lessons 1-9

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Exam 1

Covers lessons 1 - 9

Similar in format to quizzes

Should take 30-45 minutes

… if you have been keeping up!

There will be a lecture following

slide59
Next:

Lesson 11

WW II -- Global War, Global Strategy

slide60
Thesis

The grand scope of World War II was determined by a battle you never heard of fought before the war in Europe began.

slide61
Lesson Objectives

•  Be able to recount the chains of events that led to the opening of hostilities in Europe and Asia in the 1930's. •  Understand the genesis and significant features of the strategies of each major combatant:       • Germany and Japan      • Britain, France, Soviet Union, U.S. •  Be able to recount and discuss the major events in World War II through the end of 1941. •  Understand the role of the advances in military technology since the end of The Great War on the events of the first two years of World War II.

slide64
Influences on World War II

Versailles Treaty

Lessons of World War I

Great Depression

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