A globe is an accurate model of the world because it has 3 dimensions and can show its actual shape. Maps show the world in only 2 dimensions. Flat maps cannot show sizes, shapes, and direction with total accuracy. Projection is a way of showing the curved surface of the Earth on a flat map. A cartographer is a map-maker.
Latitude is distance measured in degrees north to south from the equator to the Earth’s poles. Longitude is distance measured in degrees east to west of the Prime Meridian. The Prime Meridian is the line of 0° longitude that passes through Greenwich, England.
Hemisphere is a term for half the globe. The equator divides the globe into the northern and southern hemispheres. The Prime Meridian divides the globe into the eastern and western hemispheres.
Parts of a Map A legend is a key that lists and explains the symbols and colors used on a map. Symbols are used in place of or to represent something else. Symbols may stand for capital cities, economic activities, or natural resources. A scale compares a unit of length on a map to a unit of distance on Earth.
Different Types of Maps Physical maps show landforms and bodies of water. Color, shading, or contour lines are used to show elevations or altitudes, also called relief.
Political Maps show features that humans have created. • cities • states • provinces • territories • countries
Thematic maps focus on a specific idea or theme. Examples: climates natural resources population density economic activities