Whatisreferencing? Referencing, or citing, means acknowledging all sources of information and ideas you have used in your assignment.
Why reference? The referencing in your assignment shows: • the range of ideas and approaches to a topic that you have found and thought about • your acknowledgement of where these ideas came from • that you have read widely about your topic • that your ideas and arguments are supported by others
More importantly… If you reference correctly you will: • impress your teachers! All subjects use the same system. • get higher grades • be prepared for university/TAFE • never get caught copying someone else – you will fail your assignment if this happens!
Plagiarism • If you reference correctly, you avoid plagiarism. • Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s ideas or work as if they are your own.
Referencing Rules There are twomain rules of referencing. 1. A reference must be included every time you use someone else’s ideas or information.
Referencing Rules This includes: • Paraphrasing - expressing someone else’s idea in your own words • Summarising - expressing someone else’s idea in a reduced form in your own words • Quoting - expressing someone else’s idea in their exact words • Copying - reproducing a diagram, graph or table from someone else’s work.
Referencing Rules 2. Each reference must appear in two places: • As a shortened reference in the textof your assignment each time it is used. This is called the in-text reference. AND • Listed in full once in the reference listat the end of the assignment. This listing has full details so that your reader can find your source of information.
The In-text Reference This is placed either before or after the quote or idea you are using. It consists of: • the author’s or editor’s family name(or organisation responsible). Do not include given names or initials • the year of publication • page numbersif you are using a quote/idea/object from a specific page
In-text Reference Examples Paraphrasing an idea Many factors are known to affect the successful outcomes for students at secondary school (Johnston, 2003, p. 37). OR Johnston (2003, p. 37) claims that there are many factors that are known to affect the success of students at secondary school.
In-text Reference Examples A direct quote McLaine (2002, p. 16) stated that ‘productivity among 69 percent of workers was found to be affected by work related stress’. OR ‘Productivity among 69 percent of workers was found to be affected by work related stress’ (McLaine, 2002, p. 16) .
The Reference list The Reference list: • is arranged alphabetically by author’s family name • is a single list — books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together • includes the full details of your in-text references (author, date, title, publishing details) • the name of the book/magazine is placed in italicsand other information is separated by commas
Reference List Examples Book Author’s family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) Title of book in italics, followed by a comma. Upper case used for first letter Place of publication • Daly, J, Speedy, S & Jackson, D 2004, Nursing leadership, Elsevier, Sydney. Year of publication followed by a comma – no brackets Publisher
Reference List Examples Website Title of the webpage in italics, followed by a comma. Upper case letter used for the first word only Author’s family name followed by a comma and then the initial Date first accessed on the WWW, followed by a comma Name of organisation, if applicable, then a comma Year of publication followed by a comma with no brackets Thomas, S 2007, Guide to personal efficiency, Adelaide University, viewed 6 January 2008, <http://library.adelaide.edu.au/~sthomas/papers/perseff.html>. The internet address (URL) is enclosed in < and > with a full stop at the end.
Reference List Examples Journal/magazine Author’s family name followed by a comma, then the initial, comma then date. Title of the article in single quotation marks, followed by a comma. Upper case is used for the first word Name of the magazine/journal in italics. Use an upper case letter at the start of each main word. O'Hara, MJ 2000, ‘Food preparation in the 21st century’, Journal of Food Science, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 145–151. Volume and number Use p. if the information comes from a single page. Use pp. if information comes from a range of pages.
Can I quote information my teacher has told me? Generally, no! Your teacher has given you the basic information. You are expected to show that you have read widely and can gather evidence/information from a wide range of resources.
What if the information source does not have an author or a date? If there is no author: • Look for a sponsoring body such as an organization or a government department that is responsible for the information. • If this is not possible, use the title of the book, article or document as the ‘author’. • If no date can be found, write the abbreviations n.d.
Example of journal article with no author In-text Such a strategy is already in use (‘Building human resources instead of landfills’ 2000) and … Reference List ‘Building human resources instead of landfills’ 2000, Biocycle, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 28–29.
What do I do if there is a really long quote? If you have a long direct quote (more than 30 words): • indent the quote on a new line. • you do not need to use quotation marks. • use a smaller size font
A long quote example Australians have developed: an emerging interest in values, vision, meaning and purpose which is the common characteristic of societies facing the end of a chronological era … each new decade is approached as if it holds some new promise (Mackay 1993, p.231). Three dots (ellipses) are used if you have left out a section of the quote.
How do I reference conversations, interviews, letters or emails etc? These are known as personal communications. They are given an in text reference, but are not written in the reference list unless they form a major part of your assignment.
In text examples of an interview • It has been confirmed by Seow (interview 3rd July 2008) that this practice is widespread. • I interviewed Lleyton Hewitt (7th March 2008) and asked him what advice he has to give young tennis players … • In an interview conducted on 19 February 2002, Ms J. Smith stated that … • I’ll call him David. That’s not his real name, but he sleeps in the parklands and agreed to talk to me about how he copes (interview 6th June 2008).
An Interview in the Reference List: • Not required in reference list unless it forms a major part of your document. • You must obtain the interviewee’s permission to use the interview in your work. Hewitt, L 2008, Interview by [your name], Adelaide, 3 March 2008 Interview with a homeless person, by [your name], Adelaide, 6 June 2008
How do I reference a survey? • A survey that you have conducted yourself should be put at the back of your assignment as an Appendix. • You should refer to the appendix as the in-text reference • Do not put it in your reference list. • A published survey should be added to the reference list.
Example of a survey • This view is supported by 55% of people who responded to a survey conducted to gauge opinion (Appendix 1).
What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography? • A bibliography lists everything you may have read • A reference list is limited to the in-text references in your assignment • you do not need to produce a bibliography for your assignments unless specifically asked to do so by your teacher
Still stuck? Bring your assignment to one of the teacher librarians and get some help!