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REFERENCING. St. George’s guide to citing references. REFERENCING. If you quote or make use of another writer's work, you must ensure that it is properly referenced.

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referencing

REFERENCING

St. George’s guide tocitingreferences

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REFERENCING

If you quote or make use of another writer's work, you must ensure that it is properly referenced.

This is a standard academic practice intended to make sure that you acknowledge your sources so and to enable a reader to trace them.

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REFERENCING

For a book, the bibliographic reference should include :

author or editor(s) with initials or forenames

title (underlined or in italics)

edition (unless it is the first)

publisher

date of publication

page number(s) if referred to

These should be ordered as shown in the examples you will be given later. If there are three or more authors, you should give the name of only the first, followed by et al. ('et alia' meaning 'and others' in Latin).

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REFERENCING

For a journal article, the reference should include

author(s) with initials or forenames

article title

full journal title (underlined or in italics)

volume number

date of publication

page numbers

These should be ordered as shown in the examples that you will be given later. Again, if there are three or more authors, you should give the name of only the first, followed by et al.

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REFERENCING

References to electronic resources must also include a note that it is electronic, its address (URL or otherwise) and, because much Internet material is unfixed or transient, the date when the material was accessed.

Many journals and some books are also now available in electronic format. Where the electronic version duplicates the paper version with the same pagination, etc., reference the item as paper.

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REFERENCING

There are various referencing systems. At Saint George’s, we will be using the Numeric System/British Standard System.

How the system works:

Publications cited or referred to in the text are consecutively numbered, usually in superscript. For example:

In a recent study77 it was argued... However, other research78 suggests...

References are then arranged in numerical order at the end of the text or chapter, or as footnotes. If you wish to refer to a particular page, you should do this in the reference itself. Examples are as follows.

77. Harrington, A. The placebo effect. 2nd ed. Harvard U.Pr., 1997.

78. Fee, E. & Brown, T.M. Making medical history. John Hopkins U.Pr., 1997, 18.

79. Harrington, R. The neuroses of the railway. History Today, 1994, 44, 15-21.

80. Adem, A. et al. Group representations. American Mathematical Society, 1998.

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REFERENCING

For a chapter in a multi-authored book:

81. Hacking, I. Styles of statistical reasoning in McMullin, E. (ed.) The social dimensions of science. Univ.of Notre Dame Pr., 1992, 130-57.

For an Internet site:

82. Bournemouth University Library. Guide to Citing Internet Resources. Available from: http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/citing_refs_main.html [Accessed 26 November 2009].

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REFERENCING

Some conventions within the numeric system

If you are referring consecutively in the bibliography to the same work, it is usual to use the convention Ibid. (from the Latin word 'ibidem' meaning 'in the same place') in the following way.

83. Goldman, J.A. Building New York's sewers. Purdue U.Pr., 1997, 121.

84. Ibid., 155.

Similarly, you can refer back to an item which you have listed already using op. cit. (from the Latin 'opere citato' meaning 'in the work cited').

85. Adem, A. et al. op. cit., 122.

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REFERENCING

The full references in the bibliography are arranged in alphabetical order by author. Works by the same author are arranged according to date, and those with the same author and date, alphabetically by title, as follows.

Adem, A. et al. (1998) Group representations. American Mathematical Society.

Bournemouth University Library. (2002) Guide to Citing Internet Resources. Available from:  http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library/citing_references/citing_refs_main.html [Accessed 26 November 2009].

Fee, E. & Brown, T.M. (1997) Making medical history. John Hopkins U.Pr.

Hacking, I. (1992) Styles of statistical reasoning in McMullin, E. (ed.) The social dimensions of science. Univ. Notre Dame Pr., 130-57.

Harrington, A. (1997a) Placebos in clinical trials. Medical History, 42, 116-31.

Harrington, A. (1997b) The placebo effect. 2nd ed. Harvard U.Pr.

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REFERENCING

Don’tforgetthatyoumustreferenceallquotations and ideas thatyouhaveusedfromothersources, evenifthey are paraphrased.

CheckthePlagiarismPolicyfor more information.