COURSE MATERIAL forSCHOOLS OF ARCHITECURE CONTENT • Part 1 : Experiences from four Eco-Buildings EU projects Slide 02-05 1 A - BACKGROUND Slide 06-35 1 B - The SARA Project Slide 36-57 1 C - The DEMOHOUSE Project Slide 58-85 1 D - The BRITA Project Slide 86-88 1 E - The ECO-CULTURE Project Slide 89-100 1 F - Codes, Goals and design Strategies Slide 101-106 1 G - The uncritical use of Glass in Architecture Slide 107-112 1 H – Daylight in Buildings Slide 113-124 1 I –Ventilation in Buildings and Energy Efficient Lighting • Part 2 : Learning to solve similar cases Slide 125 -157 Learning to solve similar cases • Further information on each project Slide 158 Compiled by Harald N. Røstvik
1 A : BACKGROUND ECOBUILDINGS Compiled by Harald N. Røstvik • EU’s Sixth Framework Programme announced calls for proposals within the field of Sustainable energy systems / Ecobuildings. • Four projects were awarded finance: Brita in PuBs, Sara, Eco-Culture and Demohouse. • Each of the them include a great number demo-buildings. • Each project also generate a valuable base of experience and tools that are developed in the projects. • With support from the EU these experiences are compiled and presented in the format of a Power point presentation that will be used at selected schools of architecture in Europe. • This work was organised as WP 10 in the BRITA project : Project leader : Harald N. Røstvik - Norway. Partners : Hans Erhorn - Germany, Euphrosyne Triantis - Greece, Simone Ferrari - Italy , Karin Buvik - Norway. • In this way the results of the four projects is communicated to future architects at NTUA in Athens by Trianti, Politecnico di Milano by Ferrari, BAS in Bergen by Røstvik, Fiuni in Stavanger by Røstvik and NTNU in Trondheim by Buvik.
All built forms - no matter how ”natural” they sit in the landscape – have an impact on nature. How do we minimise the impact ?Frank Lloyd Wright ”Falling Water” Bear Run USA fits naturally into the setting - it seems.
But : Peter Blume’s ”The Rock” - a gift to ”Falling Water” - tells us otherwise.While ”Falling Water” may symbolize man and nature in harmony, ”The Rock” possibly suggest man’s destruction of the elements for his own gain,since this is the painting of the site being demolished to make place for “Falling Water”.
Select energy - source Display & control energy use Utilise solar energy Reduce electricity consumption Reduce heat loss and need for cooling Design strategy Step by Step Planning principle : ”The Pyramid” Finally(at the top) : • Selection of major energy source. First(at the base) : • Visualising and controlling the energy need • Utilising solar heat • Rationalising need for electricity • Reducing heat losses and the need for cooling
THE SARA PROJECT Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings • Key aspects • Innovative yet cost effective and replicable results • Consideration of end users • Interdisciplinary team working on various RTD activities • 6 demo-buildings. Goals: • Energy savings of 30 % compared to current national standards • Construction costs no more than 5 % higher compared to conventional public buildings in each country
LOCATION OF DEMO BUILDINGS Sustainable Architecture Applied to Replicable Public Access Buildings SARA involves 6 demonstration buildings: • Training Centre in Bukhara, UZBEKISTAN • Supermarket in Ljubljana, SLOVENIA • Primary School in La Tour de Salvagny, FRANCE • Primary Health Care Centre in Barcelona, SPAIN • Office Building and Exhibition Halls in Sinabelkirchen, AUSTRIA • Municipal Buildings in Napoli, ITALY • Educational Office Building in Southhampton, UK
NEW AND RETROFITTED DEMO BUILDINGS Retrofitted buildings: • Primary School in La Tour de Salvagny, France • Municipal buildings in Napoli, Italy • Training Centre in Bukhara, Uzbekistan withdrawn New construction adjoined to an existing • Educational Office building in Southampton, United Kingdom
BUILDING CATEGORIES withdrawn
ENERGY MEASURES All demonstration sites work with high thermal insulation, optimisation of glazing surfaces, use of daylight systems and antiglare shields. These measures are easier to archive in new buildings than in the two refurbished buildings.
ENERGY MEASURES Natural ventilation by an atrium will be realised in three buildings (DSSS, TULIP, SOTON).
DEMO BUILDING Primary School in La Tour de Salvagny, France The buildings energy consumption has been minimized through good insulation, a high performance condensing gas boiler, innovative automatic lighting and variable speed ventilation. The insulation efficiency will be 26 % better than the legal requirement. The works were undertaken in two phases: Overall view • Phase 1 - the construction of 5 new classrooms, a computer room and a new library, as well as the construction of the buried earth pipes, the ventilation treatment and control system and the rain water collection tanks. • Phase 2 - complete refurbishment of existing building, from insulation to window openings and glazing to floor coverings and the ventilation system. Facade towards the North
DEMO BUILDING Primary School in La Tour de Salvagny, France Buried heat pipes A system of buried earth pipes modifies ventilation intake air temperature, pre-warming in certain months of winter and cooling in summer. The system consists of parallel 25 m long 200 mm polyethylene pipes buried in a sand bed with a combined capacity up to 80 m3/h and an air speed of 3 m/s. A system of filters in the ventilation control system ensures good air quality, and a grade of 1 % allows evacuation of condensate. The Building Monitoring System determines if the ventilation air should be taken from the buried earth pipes or the normal inlet, according to the temperature of the two sources. To evacuate the excess of heat loads accumulated during the day, free cooling (through ventilation) can be used to reduce room temperatures. In the summer of 2005, the buried earth pipes maintained in-building temperatures identical or lower than outside, effectively removing all the heat generated by the building occupants.
DEMO BUILDING Primary School in La Tour de Salvagny, France First hand experiencesTeachers working in both the new and the renovated part agree that the new spaces, the light, and the acoustics in the classrooms and corridors are significantly improved. Thus creating a more comfortable and pleasant place to work. Access between the classes and rooms has also been improved. The extra comfort has a calming effect on the pace of life in the school and has facilitated learning.The ventilation is practical in summer and winter but not really adapted for the mid-season that is generally cold and humid. In the new classrooms, ventilation is constant and enters at floor level, and leaves the children (and teachers) with a constant sensation of cold feet.
DEMO BUILDING Supermarket in Ljubljana, Slovenia Context Mercator is the leading retailer company in the south east Europe. It owns more than 1000 shops and hypermarkets of different sizes. It is obvious that the energy costs are becoming more and more significant and they have a direct influence on profit and loss of the company. For this reason Mercator has started to adopt a systematic approach to energy reduction in their shops.The energy strategy in the Mercator centre in Ljubljana revolves around low energy cooling and displacement ventilation.
ENERGY MEASURES The installation of Photovoltaics and solar thermal collectors are foreseen in every demonstration site and range from on the roof, roof-integrated to façade-integrated.
Example/4: COPENHAGEN [Danmark] Results The energy savings potential seems to be huge and it has been calculated that better strategies will also provide shorter payback time.
DEMO BUILDING University Administration Building Southampton, U.K. Nicholas Hare Architects Student Service (administrative) building. 2600 m2 of new construction adjoined to an existing 2000 m2 buildingThe picture shows an internal view of the central hall created by joining the new and old buildingsBuilding Integrated Photovoltaic SystemThe PV system is expected to generate up to a third of the power consumed in the new office floor area, and provides solar shading. • 177 m2 area. 67 modules PV • 14 kWp installed power • 11,314 kWh/year energy production
DEMO BUILDING University Administration Building Southampton, U.K. Nicholas Hare Architects First hand experience on PV«The photovoltaics were a headache, mostly because of the sub-contract supply chain, but didn’t quite delay us; the timber engineering was really impressive; and the key to success was the detailed attention to everything that was given by the architect, who listened to the contractor’s problems, and set about solving them.»
MATERIALS Some of the demo buildings use ecological building construction materials like wood, fired-clay tiles or ecological insulation materials like hemp, cork and reed.
DEMO BUILDING Municipal buildings in Naples, Italy ContextThe historical building called Real Albergo dei Poveri will be transformed to become Città dei Giovani (university, research, exposition, cinema, music, theatre, info points for employment, meeting and exchange point, incubator for enterprises, offices, classrooms, auditorium, library, cafeteria, restaurants, etc.) Refurbishment solutions • Materials: The building is refurbished using traditional, locally sourced materials. • Lighting: The 3 upper floors is designed to benefit from the maximum of natural lighting in order to reduce the energy demand for lighting, associated with a good control of avoid overheating in summer. Principal façade
DEMO BUILDING Municipal buildings in Naples, Italy Refurbishment solutions (continued) • Thermal mass considerations: The building is a massive structure and its walls have very good thermal insulating properties. The aim is to use the thermal mass capability within the energy strategy. • Natural ventilation: Air conditioning system is not compatible with the monumental building. Ventilation is granted thanks to air exchanges through manual devices. • Heating and cooling system: Use of high performance gas boiler with low temperature floor heating. • Renewable Energy Systems: 72 kWp of roof integrated photovoltaic are planned for the first building phase, which has been approved by the relevant ministries. • Water recovery: Large storage reservoir will be created under the ground to store rainwater from the roof. The collected water will be used for toilet flushing. • Monitoring: The performance of the photovoltaic system will be monitored. The 3 upper floors will be equipped with irradiation sensors to measure the degree of natural light and with temperature sensor to measure and control the temperature.
DEMO BUILDING Training Centre in Bukhara, Uzbekistan ContextThe old school (Medrese Rachid) from the 1700 century, now abandoned, will be transformed to a Training Centre. The building consists of small cells (10 m2) organised around a central courtyard (180 m2). On the South, near the canal, the building has two levels of cells.Objective of the refurbishment: associate traditional construction methods with energy efficient and bio-climatic design (natural ventilation, plantation of vegetation, ...) to reduce overheating in summer in order to avoid the use of air conditioner, which are more and more used in this region. The walls are in bricks outside and covered by plaster inside. The thickness of the wall (included the plaster) is 60 cm. This kind of construction is adapted to the climate. The space is covered with a brick dome, which will be restored with traditional materials.
DEMO BUILDING Training Centre in Bukhara, Uzbekistan The new structure necessary for the new use of the Medrese (‘centre de resources sur le patrimoine’), is made essentially of wood. A source of wood is to be found near to Bukhara; the forest in the south of the country. For the new structure a metal roof will be used. Photovoltaic: 4.8 kWp roof integrated PV system with additional shading function.Solar Thermal: 43 m2 solar thermal collectors. Old building with a new extension
DEMO BUILDING Primary Health Care Centre in Barcelona, Spain Context New construction seven floor building with 3,000 m2 gross floor area between adjoining buildings on two facades Design criteria • Use of low environmental impact materials with minimum embodied energy for their production, reuse, recycling or disposal. • Reduction of the building’s energy demand by means of architectural design and special attention to the building envelope, especially shading devices. • Use of energy efficient systems for HVAC and lighting. Use of a radiant ceiling based heating and cooling system to achieve high coefficients of performance and comfort conditions. • Inclusion of an innovative energy efficient desiccant dehumidifier liquid with lithium chloride solution in the ventilation system in order to control humidity and prevent condensation on the cooled ceilings.
DEMO BUILDING Primary Health Care Centre in Barcelona, Spain Design criteria (continued) • Use of natural resources, including rainwater harvesting and grey water reuse, and use of renewable energy systems: building integrated solar photovoltaics and a solar thermal installation. • Introduction of a Building Management System to optimize energy and operational performance of the building and to provide data for optimization of control mechanisms, performance monitoring and dissemination purposes. First hand experiencesThe search for solutions that offer added value in terms of improved sustainability, was adopted by all the actors involved in the process and contributed to developing a positive team approach. The willingness of all parties to work hard to overcome difficulties and find solutions to the problems encountered proved essential and enabled the initial design to evolve and improve. The end results are a building that serves as a reference point in our construction programme and valuable experience in pushing for performance beyond standard levels.
INFORMATION ABOUT SARA www.sara-project.net
1 C : THE DEMOHOUSE PROJECTCompiled by Simone Ferrari and Valentina Zanotto
introducing: DEsignandManagementOptions for improving the energyperformance ofHousing
The DEMOHOUSE Project • Strong need to develop minimum standards for sustainable rehabilitation which does focus not only on technical issues and initial costs, but also on refurbishment strategies and social aspects. • Renewal of the existing housing stock in Europe has an enormous potential for energy savings and the introduction of renewable energy. • The demand for sustainable renovation is currently increasing and this development is expected to continue for the coming years. Sustainable renovation is part of the sustainable development as a European strategy to promote the competitiveness and growth.
MAJOR AIMS • Develop minimum standards for sustainable renovation; • Develop a decision-making tool to improve sustainable renovation; • Create long-time management structures to implement a life time orientation on sustainable renovation; • Create long-time communication structures to guarantee ongoing dissemination and training concerning sustainable renovation; • Develop, implement and demonstrate technological solutions to reduce energy consumption by minimal 30% compared to the present renovation standards; • Develop a multidisciplinary approach of sustainable renovation to improve life quality.
ADDITIONAL ISSUES Some non energy related topics have to be carefully addessed: Financial Factors - In order to remove the financial barriers to large-scale implementation of (new) renovation technologies, new financing models will be developed and demonstrated. Organizazional Factors - Demohouse aims at finding solutions for organisation and communication barriers by looking at new management systems to ensure effective large-scale rehabilitation of existing building stock. Social Factors - Technological solutions should contribute not only to energy savings but also to the improvement of life quality including a healthy indoor climate. Technological solutions should be developed with the customer in mind.
CONTENTS • Inventory and analysis of barriers: identification of technical and organizational barriers concerning sustainable renovation. • Inventory of Best Practice: identification of possible technical and organizational suitable solutions for sustainable renovation. • Selection of appropriate solutions: selection of existing and generated technical and organizational solutions. • Implementation of solutions: application of appropriate solutions in the Pilot projects.
INNOVATION • Innovation in Demohouse can be described in three ways: • In most cases the currently available renewable energy technologies can be used just in newly built houses. In the case of existing housing stock there are additional (physical) boundaries for the application of these technologies. This means that these technologies have to be adapted before they are applied to the renovations sector; • In addition to energy savings, health and social factors will be taken into consideration; • Also the technical, organizational and financial barriers to the implementation of new technologies will be studied.
APPROACH The goal of improving energy savings by at least 30% has been measured by defining a Pilot project and a Reference project in each of the participating countries. The Pilot project is the actual demonstration project, where the recommendations of the investigations are implemented. The Reference project is a housing complex renovated according to existing local and national standards.
GRAZ Austria COPENHAGEN Denmark BUDAPEST Hungary BILBAO Spain ATTICA Greece The Examples To better explain how the Ecobuilding guidelines can be applied in practice, five exemplary interventions have been carried out across Europe. Let’s see the details.
Example/1: BILBAO [Spain] Project Renovation; 1910 building, no previous meaningful intervention; Residential building; 870 m2 730 m2; Public intervention, in a framework of local redevelopment project. Current Situation: Uninsulated walls; Single pane windows; Uncontrolled air leakages. Traditional Practice (Reference): Very poor thermal insulation; No awareness about energy savings issue within building renovation.
Example/2: BUDAPEST [Hungary] Project Renovation of 3 buildings; 1955-1960 buildings; Military buildings social housing; 2,100 m2 , 3 storeys; Financed by a Private-Public Partnership scheme, due to the cut of the central subsidy. Current Situation: Uninsulated masonry walls; Single pane windows; Very bad condition.
Example/2: BUDAPEST [Hungary] Pilot Strategies Technical Systems: Mechanical ventilation, to make up for the improvement of construction air-tightness; With partial heat recovery connected to the mechanical ventilation, to be previously tested in 3 flats; Combination of biomass wood chip burners (for one building) or regular gas burner with solar collectors (1m2 surface/dwelling, extensible to 2.5m2) for heating and domestic hot water production; Photovoltaic system for electricity, initially sold to the grid (because of economic advantages); Rain water and waste management system. Building construction: Plan of a new inhabited roof with a U-value of0.2 W/m2K; Plan of a flat area of the roof to host solar systems; Insulation of walls with lower heat conductance polystyrene in three different thicknesses (6, 12 and 20 cm); Low-e windows (1.2 W/m2K) with external shading.
Example/3: ATTICA [Greece] Results The proposed techniques deal with the building envelope, the ventilation systems, the use of passive heating and cooling systems and the use of management systems The main reduction of the energy needs comes from the heating and cooling systems; The use of ground air exchangers combined with the use of complementary methods of hybrid passive cooling (such as ceiling fans and demand controlled ventilation) could become an example in the southern patterns of Europe where the climatic characteristics impose high cooling loads; There is the need to grow an environmental awareness among designers and authorities to make energy savings a national issue.
Example/4: COPENHAGEN [Danmark] Project Current Situation: Concrete panel assembly construction; The heat is supplied by district heating. Renovation; 1965-1969 buildings; Social housing blocks; 43,410 m2 ( 2,880 m2/8,640 m3 per block); Public intervention. Traditional Practice (Reference): 10cm thermal insulation; Standard specification new windows; New heating distribution system; Simple water saving measures. • Procedure: • In the first phase only 2 blocks have been taking into account : • one renovated completely with the reference method; • the other has been divided into 3 parts, each one implemented with different levels of special energy saving measures. • The experience obtained here will be used for the blocks/apartments to follow.
Example/4: COPENHAGEN [Danmark] Pilot Strategies Level B (in addition to the Reference): Requirement controlled PV assisted air exhaust with effective DC fans from EcoVent; Insulation of the roof; Use of Building Energy Management System (BEMS); Low-energy windows; Wider water saving measures. Level A (in addition to level B), optimisation towards the decrease of heting needs, with Swedish/EcoVent cooperation: Ventilation with heat recovery with low electricity use from EcoVent; Super low-energy windows with a 0.85 W/m2K U-value; Increased efforts regarding the air tightness in the apartments. Level A+ (in addition to level A) : 64 m2 solar collectors as additional heat source for domestic hot water; 100 m2 PV-modules.