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Strategy Guide: 3 rd 9 Weeks Social Studies Common Assessment. 1. Describe the role of Christopher Columbus in European Exploration of the Americas. .
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He thought he had discovered a westward route to China when he actually sailed upon the Americas. He is credited with “discovering” the American continents.
The Columbian Exchange was an exchange of people, foods, and germs between Europe and the Americas.
eastern coast of modern day US, north eastern path through modern day Canada
Eastern US (East of Mississippi River to the English Colonies), north eastern coast of modern day Canada
small claim on mid-eastern atlantic coast, modern day new york city
southwestern US, modern-day Florida, Mexico, Central America, South America
Explorers were obligated to claim land for thecountries that paid for their voyages.
Explorers typically founded settlements where there were plentiful natural resources including water and food sources.
Spain founded the settlement of Saint Augustine, Florida, which still exists today.
The French in modern-day Canada were fur trappers who established business relationships with local Native Americans (especially the Huron).
The Netherlands became involved in the slave trade in North America after first becoming wealthy from trading guns for furs with the powerful Iroquois Native Americans.
The English believed they had first claimed ALL of North America when John Cabot sailed upon Canada in the 1400’s.
During the Starving Time which lasted from 1609-1610, over 500 settlers died from lack of food at Jamestown. There are various theories about what caused this time of starvation!
He was the leader whose policy requiring all colonists work for their food helped the new colony of Jamestown survive BEFORE the Starving Time.
After the “Starving Time” she brought peace and increased trade between the colonists and her people and eventually married prominent settler John Rolfe (NOT John Smith).
Wherever Europeans settled in the Americas, Native Americans died out in large numbers from disease.
Triangular Trade was a three way system of trade during 1600-1800s in which: -Africa sent slaves to America, -America sent Raw Materials to Europe, -and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
Benefited: Colonists receiving slave labor and finished products, Europeans receiving raw materials
Hurt: Africans forced into slavery
The Middle Passage was a brutal journey that slaves were forced to experience from Africa to the Americas.
As farmers began growing CASH CROPS, more workers were required to produce more crops to sell for profit, so slaves became a “necessary” part of the colonial economy, especially in the Southern Colonies.
90 % of colonists (9 / 10) lived on small, family farms.
Most settlers chose to live in this way because on a farm they could meet most of their own needs for survival.
Cities during colonial times were much smaller than today, but they made up for their small size with the noise and dirt created by lots of people and animals. They were usually located on the waterfront and included shops, churches, and sometimes even a school.
Gaining wealth or money was the only real way to move up on social class in the colonies. Colonists could become wealthier through hard work or sometimes even marrying into a wealthier family.
The opportunities in the colonies, such as religious freedom and the ability to move up in social class, outweighed the risks of being an indentured servant.
Growing cash crops on large plantations was unique to the Southern Colonies. The climate and geography of this region, with fertile land and long, hot summers, allowed these large plantations to flourish.
Cash crops are crops grown in large quantities (amounts) to be sold for profit.
More workers were required to produce more crops to sell for profit.
There was great diversity in the Middle Colonies as people from many countries (England, Germany, Netherlands, Sweden, etc.) with various cultures and religions settled in the Middle Colonies.
The New England colonies were the first to offer public schools for elementary aged students.
The King of England was the leader of each colonial government in America.
Governments are based on an agreement or contract between the ruler and people to be ruled.
Even the King of England must obey the law.
It spelled out specific rights they had as English citizens.
The right to petition gave colonists the right to request the government to do something or to make a change.
32. List three documents, along with the colony that used each one, that showed the colonists’ desire to govern themselves and solve their own problems.
The Fundamental Orders - Connecticut
The Mayflower Compact – Massachusetts
The Fundamental Constitutions – North & South Carolina
An assembly is most democratic because members were usually elected by citizens living in the colony.
The English Colonies were founded by people with different goals, ranging from making money to following their religious beliefs.
A primary source is a source created by an eyewitness or participant in a historical event.
A secondary source created by someone who was NOT an eyewitness or participant in a historical event.