A Review of Social Studies
Adapted from: North Carolina Geographic Alliance PowerPoint Presentations 2007 The Five Themes of GeographyA Framework for Studying the World
Theme 1: Location • Two Types of Location • Absolute • Relative • Where is It? • Why is It There?
Absolute Location • A specific place on the Earth’s surface • Uses a grid system • Latitude and longitude • A global address
North Carolina Absolute Location • North Carolina 36° N Latitude 79° W longitude • Chapel Hill 35° 55' N Latitude 79° 05' W Longitude
Relative Location • Where a place is in relation to another place • Uses directional words to describe • Cardinal and intermediate directions
Relative Location of North Carolina • North Carolina is bordered by Virginia on the north, South Carolina and Georgia on the south, and Tennessee on the west. • The Atlantic Ocean forms North Carolina's east coast. • North Carolina is one of the Southeastern States
Theme 2: PlacePhysical Characteristics • Land Features • Mountains, plains, and plateaus • Climate • Bodies of Water
Physical Characteristics Photos above: Steve Pierce http://www.wetmaap.org/Cape_Hatteras/ch_tm_2.html
Theme 2: PlaceHuman Characteristics • People • Culture • Language • Religion • Buildings and Landmarks • Cities
Theme 3: Human Environment Interaction How People Interact With Their Environment People . . . • Adapt to Their Environment • Modify Their Environment • Depend on Their Environment http://www.fotosearch.com/comp/corbis/DGT119/BAG0017.jpg
Theme 4: Movement The Mobility of • People • Goods • Ideas How Places are linked to one another and the world
Theme 5: Regions What Places Have in Common • Political Regions • Landform Regions • Agricultural Regions • Cultural Regions
Five Themes of Geography • http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Durante-59780-5-Themes-Geog-6th-Grade-World-Geography-continued-five-Location-Place-Regions-Region-Mov-of-geo-Education-ppt-powerpoint/
Geographical Terms • absolute locationThe location of a point on the Earth's surface that can be expressed by a grid reference such as latitude and longitude. altitudeHeight of an object in the atmosphere above sea level. • atlasA bound collection of maps. • boundaryA line indicating the limit of a country, state, or other political jurisdiction. • cartographerA person who draws or makes maps or charts. • continentOne of the large, continuous areas of the Earth into which the land surface is divided.
Geographical Terms • degreeA unit of angular measure: A circle is divided into 360 degrees, represented by the symbol o . Degrees are used to divide the roughly spherical shape of the Earth for geographic and cartographic purposes. • elevationThe height of a point on the Earth's surface above sea level. • EquatorAn imaginary circle around the Earth halfway between the North Pole and the South Pole; the largest circumference of the Earth. • globeA true-to-scale map of the Earth that duplicates its round shape and correctly represents areas, relative size and shape of physical features, distances, and directions.
Geographical Terms • gridA pattern of lines on a chart or map, such as those representing latitude and longitude, which helps determine absolute location. • hemisphereHalf of the Earth, usually conceived as resulting from the division of the globe into two equal parts, north and south or east and west. • international date lineA line of longitude generally 180 degrees east and west of the prime meridian. The date is one day earlier to the east of the line. • latitudeImaginary lines that cross the surface of the Earth parallel to the Equator, measuring how far north or south of the Equator a place is located. • legend A key to what the symbols or pictures in a map mean.
Geographical Terms • longitudeImaginary lines that cross the surface of the Earth, running from north to south, measuring how far east or west of the prime meridian a place is located. • mapA picture of a place that is usually drawn to scale on a flat surface. • oceanThe salt water surrounding the great land masses, and divided by the land masses into several distinct portions, each of which is called an ocean. • prime meridianAn imaginary line running from north to south through Greenwich, England, used as the reference point for longitude. • scaleThe proportional relationship between a linear measurement on a map and the distance it represents on the Earth's surface. • sea levelThe ocean surface. • topography The physical features of a place; or the study and depiction of physical features, including terrain relief.
From Human Prehistory to Early Civilizations World History
Human Life in the Era of Hunters and Gatherers • Hunting and gathering (H&G) economies dominated until 9000 BCE. H&G groups were small and roles were separated between men and women, but no social inequalities yet existed. • Population growth was slow, partly because fertility rates among women were limited due to longer years of breast-feeding.
Late Paleolithic Developments • During the Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) which ran up until about 10,000 BCE, humans first learned to use only simple tools of wood and stone. • The development of cave paintings, rituals, goddesses, speech, and languages increased communication and gave way to various cultures.
Human Migration • The human species, homo sapiens sapiens, was thought to have originated in Africa. Gradual migration, facilitated by innovations like fire and clothing, pushed humans out of Africa about 750,000 years ago and to China, Britain, and Australia. • Most scholars believe that humans crossed the Bering Strait, the ice bridge from Siberia to Alaska, about 30,000 years ago.
The Mesolithic Age or Middle Stone Age • During the “Middle Stone” Age from 10,000 to 7,000 BCE humans improved their ability to sharpen tools to make better weapons and cutting tools. Mesolithic peoples domesticated animals like cows, which led to increased food supply and population growth. This acceleration in population, though, led to more conflicts and wars.
The Neolithic Revolution= Agriculture! • The “New Stone Age” was a result of better tool use, more elaborate social organization and population pressure. The Neolithic Revolution saw the development of agriculture, which had its roots in the Middle East as early as 10,000 BCE. • Farming led to the domestication of more animals and the ability to support more people. Agriculture methods were initially difficult to learn and were often mixed with older and more reliable H&G techniques.
The Spread of Agriculture • Agriculture spread to almost all geographic areas with more concentrated zones of farming in the Andes, Mesoamerica, West Africa, the Middle East, India, North China, and Southeast Asia. Societies became mostly agricultural, in which most people were farmers and the production of food was the main economic activity. • Farming led to increased curiosities about scientific matters like weather patterns.
The Bronze Age • The discovery of metal tools dating back to 4000 BCE marks the beginning of this next age of human existence. Copper was the first metal to be used and in the Middle East stone tools were no longer used. Metalworking greatly aided agriculture as farmers were able to work the land more efficiently. Because farming took less work and time specialization of jobs came about with “occupations” for artisans, toolmakers, and woodworkers.
Civilization • The earliest civilizations formed in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River Basin and China. A society can only be called a civilization if it has developed a writing system. Cuneiform was the first type of writing. H&G peoples did not develop civilizations due to lack of stability and not all agricultural societies were civilizations. Nomads were often considered barbaric for their lack of civilization.
Civilization, cont. • Civilizations often have stronger class divisions and greater separations between the rulers and the ruled. Male superiority was very evident and women were subject to subordinate roles.
Tigris-Euphrates Civilization • Located between the two rivers in an area called Mesopotamia, it was the very first civilization. The Sumerians, who invaded and then inhabited the area around 3500 BCE, developed the first cuneiform alphabet. Ziggurats, massive towers, were the first architectural monuments. City- states were the primary form of govt., in which slavery did exist.
Tigris-Euphrates Civilization cont. • After the Sumerians the Akkadians and then the Babylonians invaded Mesopotamia. The Babylonian king, Hammurabi, devised Hammurabi’s Law Code. After the Babylonians came the Semitic peoples, the Assyrians and then the Persians.
Egyptian Civilization • This 2nd center of civilization, formed around 3000 BCE, was located along the Nile River. The pharaoh was the king and had a great deal of power. Pyramids served as tombs for pharaohs. The economy was much focused on irrigation along the Nile. Egypt was later invaded by the kingdom of Kush. The Egyptians made great achievements in mathematics (creating the concept of a 24 hour day) art (hieroglyphics and tomb art) and architecture.
Indus River Valley Civilization • Emerging around 2500 BCE along the river. This civilization supported the large cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. The Indus River peoples created their won alpahbet, writing system and artistic forms.
Chinese River Valley Civilization • Developed along the Huanghe (Yellow River) in China, it flourished in considerable isolation. Their govt. was compromised of a well organized state and they produced advanced technology. Chinese River Valley peoples were the first to devise a ideographic writing system, and made great accomplishments in astronomy, art, and music. Massive structures were not a part of their culture. A line of kings called the Shang ruled around 1500 BCE (Shang Dynasty).
Final Thought… • Be able to describe each of the ages of human existence. (Paleolithic, Mesolithic…) • Compare and contrast the development of two of the four early civilizations. • Be able to describe each of the four civilizations in terms of geographic locations and other relevant terms.
study of government: the study of political organizations and institutions, especially governments Political Science
The Constitution • http://www.congressforkids.net/Constitution_index.htm • Work through all the links on this site!
Beginnings of European Exploration Leif Eriksson A Norse seamen, who sailed within sight of continent in the eleventh century. US HistoryCAUSES and CONSEQUENCES of exploration, settlement, and growth
Prince Henry the Navigator • Ruler Portugal, sponsored voyages aimed at adding territory and gaining control of trading routes to increase the power and wealth of Portugal. He also wanted to spread • Christianity and prevent the further expansion of Islam and Africa.
Technical Innovation Aiding Exploration • Pole Star: from the horizon south of the equator, one cannot see the Pole star • Until 1460, captain had no way to determine their position if they sailed too far south.
Main Elements of European Exploration As the Portuguese began to trade and explore along the coast of Africa, they brought back slaves, ivory, gold, and knowledge of the African coast. It looked as though the Portuguese might find a route to the Indian ocean, and it was clear that the voyages sponsored by Prince Henry were benefiting Portugal in many ways.
European Contact with the Americas • Amerigo Vespucci not Columbus. Vespucci took part in several voyages to the New World and wrote a series of descriptions that not only gave Europeans an image of this “New World”but also spread the idea that the discovered lands were not part of Asia and India. • Vasco da Gama, crossed the Isthmus of Panama and came to another ocean, which separates the American continents from China.
Ferdinand Magellan • Discovered at the southern end of South America a strait that provided access to the ocean west of Americas.
Hernando Cortez • Cortez led a small military expedition against the Aztecs and Mexico. Cortez and his men failed in their first attack on the Aztecs capital city, Tenochtitlan, but were ultimately successful.
Francisco Pizarro • Pizarro’s expedition enabled the Spanish to begin to explore and settle South America. However, the sole purpose of the conquistadors, explorations was defeating the native to gain access to gold, silver, and other wealth.
Spanish Settlement in the New World • The first permanent settlement established by the Spanish was predominantly military fort of St. Augustine, located in present-day Florida. In 1598, Juan de Onate led a group of 500 settlers north from Mexico and established a colony and what is now New Mexico.
US History – Explorers Timeline 1497 John Cabot discovers Newfoundland while he searches for the Northwest Passage. 1502 Amerigo Vespucci returns from his explorations of the New World. American continents named after him by German mapmaker. 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovers the eastern shore of the Pacific Ocean. Juan Ponce de Leon searches for the Fountain of Youth in Florida. 1519 - 1522 Ferdinand Magellan and his crew sail around the world. 1521 Hernando Cortez defeats the Aztec Empire.
US History – Explorers Timeline Francisco Pizarro defeats the Inca Empire. 1534 Jacques Cartier discovers the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes. 1539 - 1542 Hernando De Soto explores the southeastern United States. 1540 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores the southwestern United States and discovers the Grand Canyon. 1577 Sir Francis Drake becomes the first Englishman to sail around the world. 1673 Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet explore the Mississippi River. 1682 Rene-Robert de La Salle explores the Mississippi River from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.