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DIVISION OF THE HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE. Prehistorical /Stone Age (c.3.000.000.000 – 3.000 BC) Historical Age (3.000 BC – nowadays) c. 3.000 BC invention of writing by the Sumerians (cuneiform writing). Stone Age Mesolithic Age (12.000 – 6.800 BC)

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division of the historical knowledge
DIVISION OF THE HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE
  • Prehistorical/Stone Age

(c.3.000.000.000 – 3.000 BC)

  • Historical Age

(3.000 BC – nowadays)

  • c. 3.000 BC invention of writing by theSumerians (cuneiform writing)
slide2

Stone Age

Mesolithic Age

(12.000 – 6.800 BC)

Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age

(2.000.000 – 12.000 BC) (6.800 – 3.200 BC)

during the paleolithic age the first human being appeared on earth
During the Paleolithic Age, the first human being appeared on Earth
  • The “Archanthropos” of the Petralona Cave (1960)in Chalkidiki (Greece) is the oldest anthropoid found in Europe.
  • His age is 700.000 years old!!!
  • Europe was first inhabited by anthropoids at least in 700.000 BC.
paleolithic age 2 000 000 12 000 bc
Paleolithic age (2.000.000 – 12.000 BC)
  • Hunting and gathering was the way of life in this age.
  • Paleolithic man moved in groups to scare away wild animals.
  • He used fire for cooking and to scare away the animals while living in caves.
  • To ensure protection he covered himself with coarse animal skin and large leaves.
  • He painted rocks and caves with pictures of everyday’s life.
greece in the paleolithic age
Greece in the Paleolithic age
  • Geomorphologic and climatic changes
  • Strong and constant earthquakes
  • Fluctuation of the level of the Aegean Sea
  • Changes in flora and fauna and in the human living

Flora: conifer-trees, wild-beans, etc.

Fauna: bears, mammoths, deer, wild-boars, etc.

  • More finds after 100.000 BC
greece in the paleolithic age1
Greece in the Paleolithic Age
  • Most important archaeological points:

Theopetra (Thessaly)

Fragthi Cave (Peloponnese)

Characteristics:

  • Residence in caves, under rocks or outdoors
  • Living in groups of 10-30 persons, sometimes related
  • Hunting in groups in deep forests or passages or collecting snails, herbs and fruit
greece in the paleolithic a ge
Greece in the Paleolithic Age
  • Characteristics:
  • Tools from stone, bone or horn (even some utensils from wood or clay)
  • Using yellow or red ochre to paint the face or the body of the dead (paleolithic“gold”)
  • Burial in graves with funeral gifts (tools, flowers, horns)  Belief in life after death
mesolithic age 12 000 6 800 bc
Mesolithic age (12.000 – 6.800 BC)
  • People started making semi-permanent houses
  • They probably lived in light wooden frameworks covered with thatch or sods, which could have been erected and dismantled quickly and easily
  • They started using boats for transport and fishing
  • They started making flint tools with handles and stone tools from microliths, set into toothed slots in bone or antler shafts, in order to create a variety of harpoons, arrows and fish hooks
greece in the mesolithic age
Greece in the Mesolithic age
  • Stabilized geomorphologic and climatic conditions
  • Most important archaeological points:

Sidari (Corfu)

Fragthi Cave (Peloponnese)

Maroulas (Alonnesos)

Gioura (Aegean Sea)

greece in the mesolithic age1
Greece in the Mesolithic age
  • Characteristics:
  • Residence in outdoor points or in caves near the sea
  • Living in groups of 10-30 persons, sometimes related
  • Almost permanent installation
  • Accommodation with stone-made foundations
  • Graveyards next to the installation points
greece in the mesolithic age2
Greece in the Mesolithic age
  • Characteristics:
  • Hunting in groups, collecting herbs and fruit AND systematic fishery with developed equipment
  • Limited domestication of some wild plants and animals
  • Long, organized naval trips in the open sea (tuna fishing OR transporting essential materials)
greece in the mesolithic age3
Greece in the Mesolithic age
  • Characteristics:
  • Import of tougher materials, in order to make more effective tools and weapons
  • Construction of blades and bladelets
  • Cremation of dead (in some cases) for the first time
  • Construction of some kind of jewels as ornaments or even funeral gifts (according probably to the social position)