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CHEMISTRY PowerPoint Presentation

CHEMISTRY

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CHEMISTRY

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  1. CHEMISTRY WEEK 16 to 20 L. R. Inglish Canyon H. S. Science G-101

  2. JUST DO IT 4 PLUS 2

  3. PERIODIC TABLE: Elements 3A – 8A

  4. WEEK 16… JUST DO IT 4 PLUS 2 4 + 2

  5. TODAY 11/21/11 • Daily Quiz and Journal Entry 10 min… • Summarize Cornell Notes 5 min… • Chapter 8: Molecular Bonding

  6. DAILY QUIZ : Week 16 • 11/21/11 • Electron configuration for Carbon • Lewis Dot Symbol for Carbon • Electron configuration for Oxygen • Lewis Dot Symbol for Oxygen • Using Lewis Dot Symbols, show how Carbon Monoxide is bonded.

  7. 11/21/11 Homework • Read Section 8.2 • In the Chapter 8 Review Packet, answer Sections 8.1 and 8.2.

  8. DAILY QUIZ : Week 16 • 11/22/11 • Define a Single Bond. • Define a Double Bond. • Define a Triple Bond. • What is a Coordinate Covalent Bond? • Show the electron configuration for Nitrogen and Oxygen. • Draw the Lewis Dot Symbol for Nitrogen and Oxygen. • Using Lewis Dot Symbols, show how Ammonia (NH3) is bonded.

  9. CLASSWORK 11/21/11 • Additional comments for the Drawing Lewis Structures Handout… • The LESS electronegative element will usually be the central atom (exception: H). • Now, follow the steps given in the handout. • CCl4 • NCl3 • PF5

  10. DAILY QUIZ : Week 16 • 11/22/11 • Define a Single Bond. • Define a Double Bond. • Define a Triple Bond. • What is a Coordinate Covalent Bond? • Show the electron configuration for Nitrogen and Oxygen. • Draw the Lewis Dot Symbol for Nitrogen and Oxygen. • Using Lewis Dot Symbols, show how Ammonia (NH3) is bonded.

  11. 11/22/11 Homework • Read Section 8.2 • In the Chapter 8 Review Packet, answer Sections 8.1 and 8.2. • Using Lewis Dot Symbols, draw Colonel HOFBrINCl’s diatomic molecules. • Draw the covalent molecular structures for the compounds in the Drawing Lewis StructuresHandout.

  12. CLASSWORK 11/21/11 • Review the Drawing Lewis Structures Handout…Sample Structures • Discuss Carbon’s Bond Hybridization • Discuss Colonel HOFBrINCl and Diatomic Molecules

  13. DAILY QUIZ : Week 16 • 11/23/11 • What type of bonds does Carbon have in CH4? • What type of bonds does Carbon have in C2H4? • What type of bonds does Carbon have in C2H2? • What is a Coordinate Covalent Bond? • Describe the bond in CO (on the board) and explain why?

  14. 11/23/11 Homework • Read Section 8.2 • In the Chapter 8 Review Packet, answer Sections 8.1 and 8.2. • Using Lewis Dot Symbols, draw Colonel HOFBrINCl’s diatomic molecules. • Draw the covalent molecular structures for the compounds in the Drawing Lewis StructuresHandout. • Chapter 8 Vocabulary Review • Chapter 8 Practice Problems • Chapter 8 Chapter Quiz : Covalent Bonding • Open Book…to be turned in on Monday for grading • Chapter 7 & 8 Test on Tuesday • Lab on Wednesday • Chapter 7 & 8 Review for Test on Monday

  15. CLASSWORK 11/23/11 • Review HONC and Colonel HOFBrINCl • Review the Drawing Lewis Structures Handout … Review “difficult” problems • Discuss Carbon’s Bond Hybridization

  16. TODAY • CHANGES • Cornell Notes: Lecture and HW • Portfolio Changes

  17. END OF LECTURE…

  18. REVIEW…

  19. Night before Night before Night before Write: “See attached Flow Chart” Night before Night before Night before

  20. DAILY QUIZ : Week 17 • 11/28/11 • How many unshared (non-bonded) pairs of electrons are in NF3? • Describe the concept of “molecular polarity”. • Draw the Lewis Diagram for Hydrogen flouride, HF. • Is it a covalent or ionic compound? Why? • Is it single, double or triple bonded? Why? • Draw the Lewis Diagram for Carbon monoxide, CO. • Is it a covalent or ionic compound? Why? • Is it single, double or triple bonded? Why?

  21. 11/28/11 Homework • Lab on Wednesday • Chapter 7 & 8 Test on Tuesday

  22. Journal of Assignments • Percentage Score/Missing Assignments • Invitees to Study Session: • Lunch or After School TODAY • Review Daily Quiz • Lecture: Bond Hybridization CLASSWORK 11/28/11

  23. How many unshared (non-bonded) pairs of electrons are in NF3? 1. four 2. one 3. two 4. ten 5. twenty 6. thirteen 7. three 8. no pairs

  24. Describe the concept of “molecular polarity”. 1. atoms that are bonded together but have unequal numbers of lone pair electrons. 2. similarities in attractions for shared electrons when the electronic and molecular geometries are the same. 3. the optimal Lewis dot structure for any pair of atoms. 4. one atom of a bonded pair of atoms exerting a greater attractive force on the shared electrons. 5. the number of electrons shared by any pair of atoms.

  25. DAILY QUIZ : Week 17 • 11/30/11 • What are the 8 most important things to include in the Lab Write up? • What is the electron configuration for Ca atom? • What is the electron configuration for Ca+2 ion?

  26. 11/28/11 Homework • Lab on Today and Tomorrow • Read Chapter 9 section 1 • Finish Evidence of Reaction Lab Prep tonight.

  27. Daily Quiz • Journal of Assignments • Percentage Score/Missing Assignments • Invitees to Study Session: • Lunch or After School TODAY • Review Daily Quiz • Lecture: Bond Hybridization CLASSWORK 11/28/11

  28. Write the Purpose the night before. Translate the Procedure the night before. Write the Hypothesis the night before. Try to answer the Lab Questions the night before. Write “See attached sheet for Flow Chart.” Write “See attached sheet for Answers to Questions and Data Tables.” Write the Purpose the night before. Translate the Procedure the night before. Write the Hypothesis the night before. Try to answer the Lab Questions the night before.

  29. Write “ Write “See attached page for Flow Chart.” Write the Hypothesis … “If ______, then _______ because _______. Try to answer the Lab Questions the night before. Use a ruler for drawing Data Tables.

  30. Family 1A Family 2A ALWAYS FORM IONIC COMPOUNDS ALWAYS

  31. Family 7A FORMS IONIC COMPOUNDS ALWAYS

  32. ALSO, THE TRANSITIONAL ELEMENTS WILL FORM IONIC COMPOUNDS … AND SOME COVALENT MOLECULES

  33. The “COVALENT ZONE”… SIMILAR ELECTRONEGATIVITY CAUSES INCOMPLETE ELECTRON TRANSFER, THUS THE ELECTRONS ARE SHARED.

  34. Mendel’s Genetics Hybrid Sweat Peas X Red Sweet Pea White Sweet Pea Pink Hybrid Sweet Pea

  35. X Angus Bull Hereford Cow White Faced Hybrid Calf

  36. X

  37. X Mule (burro), Jack Horse, mare Donkey

  38. PROMOTION OF AN ELECTRONsp3 • When bonds are formed, energy is released and the system becomes more stable. • If carbon forms 4 bonds rather than 2, twice as much energy is released and so the resulting molecule becomes even more stable. • There is only a small energy gap between the 2sand2porbitals, and so it pays the carbon to provide a small amount of energy to promote an electron from the 2sto the empty 2pto give 4 unpaired electrons. • Thus, thesand the porbitals now become an sp3whose electron cloud is similar to both the sand the pclouds.

  39. So, the sp3 electron clouds look something like … σ bond This orbital is 25% s-character and 75 % p-character.

  40. 11/29/11 Define an sp bond. Define an sp2 bond. Define an sp3bond. Can there be an sp4 bond? Why? Draw the Lewis Dot Formula for Water. Draw a hybrid of a Great Dane and a Dachshund. DAILY QUIZ : Week 17

  41. Don’t Forget I still have one empty p orbital pz Carbon 1s12sp3 sp3 hybrid orbitals p orbitals Carbon 1s22s2 2p2 s orbit

  42. So, the sp3 electron clouds look something like … σ bond This orbital is 25% s-character and 75 % p-character.

  43. sp3 Hybridization

  44. End of show check

  45. PROMOTION OF AN ELECTRONsp & sp2 • When bonds are formed, energy is released and the system becomes more stable. • If carbon forms 4 bonds rather than 2, twice as much energy is released and so the resulting molecule becomes even more stable. • There is only a small energy gap between the 2s and 2p orbitals, and so it pays the carbon to provide a small amount of energy to promote an electron from the 2s to the empty 2p to give 4 unpaired electrons. • Thus, the s and the p orbitals now become an sp3 whose electron cloud is similar to both the s and the p clouds.

  46. VALENCE-SHELL ELECTRON-PAIR REPULSION THEORYVESPER • When bonds are formed, energy is released and the system becomes more stable. • If carbon forms 4 bonds rather than 2, twice as much energy is released and so the resulting molecule becomes even more stable. • There is only a small energy gap between the 2s and 2p orbitals, and so it pays the carbon to provide a small amount of energy to promote an electron from the 2s to the empty 2p to give 4 unpaired electrons. • Thus, the s and the p orbitals now become an sp3 whose electron cloud is similar to both the s and the p clouds.