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Fundamentals of Project Management. Dr. George F. Jergeas Project Management Specialization University of Calgary . Day 1 Game Introduction PMI stuff Step 1 - Define phase Step 2 - Plan phase Sequence activities Time estimate. Day 2 Cost estimate Step 3 - Organize phase

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fundamentals of project management

Fundamentals of Project Management

Dr. George F. Jergeas

Project Management Specialization

University of Calgary

schedule
Day 1

Game

Introduction

PMI stuff

Step 1 - Define phase

Step 2 - Plan phase

Sequence activities

Time estimate

Day 2

Cost estimate

Step 3 - Organize phase

Select team and PM

Step 4 - Control phase

Step 5 - Close out phase

Schedule
references
References
  • This section is based on:
    • The 5-Phased Project Management- A Practical Planning and Implementation Guide by Joseph Weiss and Robert K. Wysocki
    • Construction Project Administration by Edward R. Fisk
    • Project Management Institute: PMBOK Guide, http://www.pmi.org
    • Instructors’ notes
    • Note: Some material is presented in several different formats to exemplify ways of approaching the tools and techniques
slide4
Game
  • Your company is to build a single span bridge using Lego bricks. The span of the bridge is 90 cm and the centre point must be at least 10 cm higher than the base
  • Bridge must be self-standing and stable enough to be measured
  • Time is of the essence to the client and to your company
the blind men women and the elephant
The Blind Men/Women and the Elephant
  • Strong opinions
  • Each is partly right
  • All were wrong
  • Not one of them saw the elephant
  • The moral of the story from a project management perspective…
    • Many experience or read about an aspect or element of project management and think they know it ALL
    • Accidental Project Managers are out there in great numbers
learning objectives
Your job!Learning Objectives
  • Project Management Basics
  • 9 Knowledge areas
    • Tools and technique
    • When and why you use them
    • Business and social aspects of project management
  • Avoid becoming an Accidental Project Manager
    • The session will not turn you into instant project managers
  • Begin to see more of the PM “elephant”
agenda
Agenda
  • PART 1: Basic concepts
    • What is project and project management
    • Key terms and concepts
    • Reasons for project failure/success
  • PART 2: Technical aspects
    • 9 project management knowledge areas
      • Inputs, processes, outputs
      • Sample tools and techniques
what is a project
What is a project?
  • A specific, finite task to be accomplished
  • Can be of a long or short term duration
  • Can be large or small task
projects vary in size and scope
Projects Vary in Size and Scope
  • NASA shuttle launch
  • Building a boat
  • Building a hospital
  • Building renovation and & space modification
  • Planning a party or wedding
  • Organizing the Olympic games
  • Developing a new software program
  • Getting a university degree
  • Company mergers
project characteristics
Constant communication across organizational boundaries

Many people involved, across several functional areas

Sequenced events

Goal oriented

Has an end product or service

Multiple priorities

Complex and numerous activities

Unique, one-time set of events

Deadlines

Start and end dates

Identifiable stakeholders

Limited resources and budget

Project Characteristics
when is a project a project
When is a Project a Project?
  • A task or set of work assignments may be done by one or more persons using a simple “to do” list
  • A task become a project when the characteristics of a project begin to dominate and overwhelm individuals
    • Unable to meet deadlines, budgets and corporate expectations
project management
Project Management
  • Project management is a method and/or set of techniques based on the accepted principles of management used for planning, estimating and controlling work activities to reach a desired result on time, within budget, and according to the project specifications
slide14
Slack

Monte Carlo Analysis

PCR

EAC

Scope creep

Network diagram

Charter

Variance reports

MSProject

CPM

BCWP, ACWP, ACWS, BCWS

Float

S-Curve

MS Project

Control charts

CPI, SPI

WBS

OBS, RAM

Gantt Chart

PERT Chart

Earned value

RACI

PMP

ABT Workbench

what is project management
What is Project Management?
  • Tools/techniques
  • Processes and methodology
  • More than time, cost and scope
  • Hard and soft skills
  • A discipline evolving towards a profession
business and social aspects of project management
Business and Social Aspects of Project Management
  • Hard and soft skills
    • Technical aspects of project management
    • Interpersonal skills
      • Influence
      • Politicking
      • Negotiation
project management17
Project Management
  • Projects and project management are about people and teamwork
    • Who does what?
    • Who takes what risk?
    • Who else is involved or interested/affected?
project management challenges
Project Management Challenges
  • Lack of a common understanding on the question “What is project management???”
    • Managing stakeholders, expectations, teams, projects, uncertainty
    • Measuring project management results
    • Methodology issues
value of project management why are we doing this
Value of Project Management (Why are we doing this?)
  • Improve project/program/firm performance as measured by efficiency, effectiveness
  • Competitive advantage through competency
  • Be more “Successful”

Because management said so

value of project management why are we doing this20
Value of Project Management (Why are we doing this?)
  • Proactive vs. reactive
  • Root out ill-conceived, directionless projects
  • Increase visibility by providing roadmaps

Because of what marketing/sales promised the client

project management team
Project Management Team
  • Project Sponsor(s)
    • Decision maker, funder, champion
  • Project Manager
    • Manages the big picture
  • Project Leads
    • Manage parts of a project
project management team22
Project Management Team
  • Project Team
    • Work on specific tasks
  • Stakeholders
    • Vested interests
    • Many of them
    • Keep them happy
major causes of project failure
Major Causes of Project Failure
  • Projects fail for the following reasons:
    • The project is a solution in search of a problem
    • Only the project team is interested in the result
    • No one is in charge
    • There is no project structure
    • The plan lacks detail
major causes of project failure24
Major Causes of Project Failure
  • Projects fail for the following reasons:
    • The project has insufficient budget and/or resources
    • Lack of team communication
    • Straying from original goal
    • The project is not tracked against the plan
major causes of project success
Major Causes of Project Success
  • Stakeholders are identified
  • Stakeholders expectations are known and met
  • Senior Management support
  • There is a clearly stated purpose and a sound plan
    • Goal and objectives are understood and communicated
major causes of project success26
Major Causes of Project Success
  • A constructive goal-oriented culture
  • Technically competent team
  • Effective (and committed) team
  • Excellent communication
  • Trust
introduction
Tools & techniques are interchangeable between phasesIntroduction
  • PART 1: Basic concepts
    • What is project management
    • Key terms and concepts
    • Reasons for project failure/success
  • PART 2: Technical aspects
    • 9 project management knowledge areas
      • Inputs, processes, outputs
      • Sample tools and techniques

Use them early & often in the project

project management knowledge areas
Procurement

Quality

Risk Management

Integration

Project Management Knowledge Areas
  • Scope
  • Time
  • Cost
  • Human Resources
  • Communication

INTEGRATION

knowledge areas and key terms
Knowledge Areas and Key Terms
  • A project manager juggles 9 + balls (knowledge areas) and many tools and techniques
scope management
KA1Scope Management
  • Initiate the project
    • Feasibility, market, customer or business need
    • Environmental analysis, business case
    • Project selection practices and management decision practices
    • Project link to the firm’s strategy or corporate goals
scope management31
KA1Scope Management
  • Initiate the project
    • Identify the project manager
    • Develop a charter
      • Formally recognize the existence of the project
      • Include the business need and product description, constraints and assumptions
      • Approval to proceed
        • Funding, authority, sponsor
charter links
Charter links
  • http://web.mit.edu/pm/devcharter.html
  • http://www.cio-dpi.gc.ca/emf/solutions/ProjectCharterGuide/CharterGuide e.html
  • http://csintranet.csd.sc.edu/smartstreampro/sschartr.html
charter links33
Charter links
  • http://www.pmi.org/standards/wbscharter.htm
  • http://www.virginia.edu/~iscat/PROJECT%20CHARTER.html
  • http://www.stanford.edu/group/AIS-proj/projectcharter.html
scope management34
Scope Management
  • Plan and define the scope in detail
    • Conduct a cost/benefit analysis, consider alternatives, get expert opinion and review historical databases, brainstorm
    • What is in scope? What is out of scope? What are the criteria for completing phases?
scope management35
Scope Management
  • Plan and define the scope in detail
    • Develop a work breakdown structure (WBS)
    • Create a scope statement with assumptions and constraints
      • Project justification, product description, deliverables, success criteria, scope management plan
      • Use for future project decisions
scope management36
Scope Management
  • Verify the scope
    • What is the process and criteria for accepting the scope of work delivered?
      • Work results and documents
      • Inspection
      • Acceptance form
  • Control the scope
    • Performance reports, change requests, issues management form, scope management plan, corrective action, lessons learned
scope tips
Scope Tips
  • Be inclusive – involve stakeholders
    • Work on securing and maintaining their commitment to the project
    • Commitment: funding, approvals
  • Spend more time planning the project…then follow it (with updates of course)
scope tips38
Scope Tips
  • Define project success and communicate it
  • Steering committee with authority and decision making power
    • Supportive and decisive sponsor
time management
KA2Time Management
  • Purpose: Create a realistic schedule with the team
  • Identify the activities (tasks)
    • Activities are action steps (HOW) and different from deliverables that are tangible results (WHAT)
    • Use the WBS and scope statement
    • Develop activity lists and revise the WBS
  • Sequence activities
    • Consider dependencies
time management40
Time Management
  • Estimate durations (time)
    • Top down, bottom up estimates, Monte Carlo simulations
    • Estimating formulae (PERT estimates)
    • Expert opinion
    • Consider resource capabilities
    • Look at similar projects
  • Develop the schedule (Gantt chart)
    • Document assumptions and decisions
    • Use project management scheduling software e.g. MS Project
estimating formulae
Estimating formulae
  • PERT Estimate (weighted average)
    • [Pessimistic + (4 x Likely) + Optimistic]/6
    • Pessimistic time to get to work = 30 min
    • Optimistic time to get to work = 10 min
    • Likely time to get to work = 15 minutes
    • PERT Estimate = 30 + (4x15) + 10/6
    • 100/6=16.6 = 17 min
ms project help
MS Project HELP
  • Http://www.officeupdate.microsoft.com/welcome/project.asp
  • Http://support.microsoft.com/directory/
  • Http://www.woodyswatch.com
  • Http://www.msproject.com
planning scheduling software
Planning & Scheduling Software
  • http://www.sea.net.au/project_management/scheduling_tools/
  • http://www.projectkickstart.com/html/psoftware.htm
  • http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/dwfarthi/projman.htm
time management44
Time Management
  • Control the schedule
    • Performance reports, change requests, time management plan, corrective action, lessons learned
      • E.g. baseline Gantt chart and then update
    • Frequency
    • Roles and responsibilities
    • Control techniques e.g. meetings, 1:1
cost management
KA3Cost Management
  • Plan resources (people, equipment, materials)
    • Consider WBS, scope statement, organizational policies, staff pool
    • Identify resource requirements
  • Cost centers at Your company?
    • Time is money
cost management46
Cost Management
  • Cost budgeting
    • Resource leveling
    • Cost baseline
  • Control costs
    • Performance reports, change requests, cost management plan, corrective action, lessons learned
      • e.g. budgeted, actual, variance (with explanation)
time and cost tips
Measure twice, cut onceTime and Cost Tips
  • Its OK to ask. Talk to subject matter experts
  • Avoid single point estimates, use validated range estimates
  • Factor in the learning curve, resource productivity, experience level etc.
time and cost tips48
Time and Cost Tips
  • Use the appropriate tools, techniques, rules of thumb
  • Document assumptions for estimates
  • Negotiate
quality management
KA4Quality Management
  • Plan for quality
    • Quality product and quality project management practices
    • Quality standards
      • Conform to specifications (project produces what it said it would)
      • Fitness for use (satisfy needs)
      • Prevention vs. inspection
      • Plan, do, check, act
      • Benchmark, checklists, flow charts, cause/effect diagrams
quality management50
Quality Management
  • Quality management plan
    • Organizational structure, processes, resources, procedures, responsibilities to ensure quality plan is implemented
    • Quality metrics
      • Checklists
  • Quality Assurance
    • Follow the quality management plan, audits, improvements
quality management51
Quality Management
  • Quality control
    • Process and product results
    • Control charts, Pareto diagrams, trend analysis
quality tips
Quality Tips
  • Start with a clear view of quality in mind
  • What is quality?
  • Implications for ALL knowledge areas
human resources management
KA5Human Resources Management
  • Organizational plan
    • Organizational chart, roles and responsibilities
    • Linkages between project and functional areas, and other business units.
    • Staffing needs
      • Unions, human resources department/practices, constraints
      • RACI+
      • Staffing plan (training, orientation, job descriptions, performance evaluations, redeployment), project organizational chart
human resources management55
Human Resources Management
  • Get staff
    • Assess experience, interests, personal characteristics, availability
    • Negotiate
    • Beg and borrow but don’t steal
  • Develop the team
    • Team building, reward and recognition program, support practices
  • Don’t “control” people
    • Managerial control is different from micromanaging
human resources management tips
Human Resources Management Tips
  • Listen to understand
  • Be responsive
    • Provide positive feedback
    • Act on problems in a timely manner
  • Deal with problems
    • They won’t go away, but will get BIGGER
  • Provide constructive criticism
  • Document appropriately
  • Take time to have FUN
communications management
KA6Communications Management
  • Develop the project communication plan
    • Stakeholder analysis
    • Information to be shared (to who, what, how, when, why)
    • Technology
  • Distribute information
    • Project databases, filing system, software / hardware
    • Report up, down and across the firm

Common vocabulary

communications management58
Communications Management
  • Report performance
    • Project plan, work results
    • Project performance reports
      • Variance reports, trend analysis, change requests
    • Report the Good, Bad & Ugly
  • Administrative closure
    • Knowledge management
      • Archives
      • Acceptance forms
      • Lessons learned

Hiding things makes it worse!

sample communication formats
Posters

Coffee room chats

Milestone celebrations

Kickoff meeting

Close out meeting

Lessons learned sessions

Paraphrase & Validate

Drawings

Schedule update

Sample communication formats
  • Status reports
  • Team meetings
  • Project files
  • PR initiatives
  • Newsletters
  • E-mail
  • Databases
  • Website
  • RACI

Use what works and fits the situation - but use them...often

communications management tips
Communications Management Tips
  • If you think you have communicated enough…go back and do it again
  • Use different formats
  • Frequently use modes of communication that allow you to “see the whites of their eyes”
risk management
KA7Risk Management
  • Identify risks
    • What could go wrong (harm, loss, opportunities and threats)
    • Consider ALL knowledge areas
      • Internal and external risks
      • Sources of risk: product technology, people (misunderstandings, skills), project management etc.

Risk management is a process

risk management62
Risk Management
  • Quantify risks
    • Risk interactions, risk tolerance
    • High, Medium, Low (HML) - qualitative
    • Expected Monetary Value (EMV) - quantitative
risk quantification technique high medium low hml
Risk Quantification Technique: High, Medium, Low (HML)
  • Probability of occurrence and impact
  • High, Medium, Low grid
  • Focus on HHs and less on LLs
  • Keep it simple
risk quantification technique expected monetary value emv
Risk Quantification Technique: Expected Monetary Value (EMV)
  • EMV=risk event probability X risk event value
  • 25% chance of rain X $1,000 impact of damage to convertible car interior = EMV of $250
  • 75% chance of rain X $1,000 impact of damage to convertible car interior = EMV of $750
risk management65
Risk Management
  • Develop risk response plan
    • Opportunities and threats to respond to and opportunities and threats to accept
      • Avoid – eliminate cause
      • Mitigate – reduce risk occurrence
      • Accept – contingency plans, accept losses
    • Its OK to do any of these
    • Insurance, contingency plans, procurement, alternative strategies, contracts
    • Risk management template
risk management66
Risk Management
  • Control risk responses
    • Workarounds (defined as – when it hits the fan unexpectedly and you need to deal with it then and there)
    • Ongoing process of risk management
      • Corrective action
      • Update risk management plan
risk management tips
Risk Management Tips
  • Start Risk Management at the beginning of the project
  • Review risks throughout the project (e.g. weekly, monthly)
  • Update and project schedules, budget, staffing etc. as risk management plans are changed
procurement management
KA8Procurement Management
  • Plan procurement needs (goods and services external to the firm that you need to deliver the product)
    • Make or buy decisions
    • Contract type options (risk sharing)
  • Solicitation
    • Procurement management plan
    • Vendor selection process and criteria
      • Proposals, contracts, legal issues
procurement management69
Procurement Management
  • Select and manage sources (vendors, partners)
    • Negotiations
    • Manage contracts
  • Close contracts
    • Formal acceptance and closure
procurement tips
Procurement Tips
  • Develop charters with vendors and partners
    • Rules of the game, conflict management guidelines, escalation process
  • Take lead times into account
  • Do risk management on procurement (and all other knowledge areas)
integration management
KA9Integration Management
  • Pulling all the knowledge areas together
  • As you go through the various project phases, consider the links between knowledge areas
    • Plan the plan
    • Execute the plan
      • Project deliverables and project management outputs
    • Control the plan
5 step project management planning implementation
5 Step Project ManagementPLANNING IMPLEMENTATION

CONTROL

ORGANIZE

DEFINE

PLAN

CLOSE

Identify

project activities

Determine

Personnel

Needs

Define

Management

Style

Obtain

Client

Acceptance

Install

Deliverables

Document the

Project

Issue Final

Report

Conduct Post-

Implementation

Audit

State the Problem

Identify

Project

Goals

Estimate time and cost

Recruit

Project Manger

Establish

Control Tools

Recruit

Project Team

Prepare

Status Reports

Review

Project

Schedule

Issue Change

Orders

Sequence Project Activities

List the

Objectives

Determine

Preliminary

Resources

Identify Critical Activities

Organize

Project Team

Identify

Assumptions

and Risks

Write Project Proposal

Assign Work

Packages

Project overview WBS Recruit Criteria Variance Reports Final Report

Project network Define Work packages Status Reports Audit Reports

Critical Path Assign Work Packages Staff Allocation Reports

agenda75
Agenda
  • State the problem
  • Develop project goal
  • Develop project objectives
  • Identify assumptions and risks
  • Identify stakeholders
  • Criteria for project success
  • Project Charter/overview document
5 step project management planning implementation76
5 Step Project ManagementPLANNING IMPLEMENTATION

CONTROL

ORGANIZE

DEFINE

PLAN

CLOSE

Identify

project activities

Determine

Personnel

Needs

Define

Management

Style

Obtain

Client

Acceptance

Install

Deliverables

Document the

Project

Issue Final

Report

Conduct Post-

Implementation

Audit

State the Problem

Identify

Project

Goals

Estimate time and cost

Recruit

Project Manger

Establish

Control Tools

Recruit

Project Team

Prepare

Status Reports

Review

Project

Schedule

Issue Change

Orders

Sequence Project Activities

List the

Objectives

Determine

Preliminary

Resources

Identify Critical Activities

Organize

Project Team

Identify

Assumptions

and Risks

Write Project Proposal

Assign Work

Packages

Project overview WBS Recruit Criteria Variance Reports Final Report

Project network Define Work packages Status Reports Audit Reports

Critical Path Assign Work Packages Staff Allocation Reports

state the problem opportunity
State the Problem/Opportunity
  • Specific questions must be asked before a project begins:
    • What is the problem and what are the opportunities?
    • Do we really need the project?
  • If these questions can not be answered, then:
    • Pick the wrong project
    • The project will probably not succeed
state the problem opportunity78
State the Problem/Opportunity
  • Document the need and the benefits to the organization for undertaking the project
    • Short, crisp and to the point
    • Descriptor for those who although not directly involved on the project team are indirectly involved in supporting the project
    • A need that must be addressed
      • New product, service, process, facility, or system
      • It may involve opening a new market
example
Example
  • “Membership in PM Association has declined in the past four years and attendance at conference has declined in the past three years. The viability and financial stability of the Association depends on maintaining membership and successful annual conference.”
state project goal
State Project Goal
  • A statement of purpose and direction helps to direct the course of the project effort
    • Initiates the project
    • Serves as a point of reference for settling disputes and misunderstandings
    • Clarifies expectations
    • Helps in justifying requests for resources
goal statements
Goal Statements
  • Action oriented
  • Short and simple
  • Understandable
    • Prepare and launch the International Space Station on April 21, 2000, from Cape Canaveral, Florida
    • Connect France and England via a covered tunnel and railway under the English Channel, facility to be opened to traffic no later than September, 1996
goal statements82
Goal Statements
  • Design and complete pilot testing by March 2002, a product accounting software package that performs basic financial analyses for the company
  • Obtain a BSc degree in engineering from U of C by spring, 2004
example83
Example
  • Reverse the downward trend in membership and annual conference attendance by organizing a highly successful conference
develop project objectives
Develop Project Objectives
  • Objectives represent major components or milestones
    • Objectives are sub-goals
  • Roadmap to aid decision makers understand the purpose of the project
  • Basis for determining project time line and resource requirements
  • To achieve the goal all objectives must be realized
example85
Example
  • Develop the Program
  • Set the Conference Site and Date
  • Design and Implement the Marketing Plan
criteria for evaluating project success
Criteria for Evaluating Project Success

Project expectations:

  • Project on time
  • Within budget
  • According to specifications
  • Happy client
example87
Example
  • At least 200 of 450 PM Association membership will register to attend
  • At least 50 of previous years conferences attendees will attend
  • At least 1.5% of the non-members receiving conference brochure will attend
  • At least 5% of the non-member attendees will join PM Association
identifying assumptions and risks
Identifying Assumptions and Risks
  • Each objective will have its own risks and assumptions
  • Helps think through the project process and issues associated with execution
  • Identifies resource needs and issues involving resource availability
  • Identifies potential delays and the impact of these delays
  • Potential cost overruns can be predicted and resolved
example89
Example
  • Interest in PM Association can be renewed through the annual conference
  • A quality professional program will attract members and non-members
  • Key speaker(s) fail to show up or submit written paper
risk management template
Risk

Probability

Impact

Owner

Response Plan

Monitoring Schedule

Risk Management Template
stakeholders
Stakeholders
  • Individual or organisations actively involved in the project or directly or indirectly affected by its execution or results
    • Roles must be identified at the start of the project
    • Needs and expectations must be communicated and influenced in a positive and constructive manner so that the project will be success for all
who are the people involved
Who are the People Involved?
  • Owner, Contractor, Consultant (in-house and outside)
  • Sub-consultants, Subcontractors
  • Suppliers (Vendors)
  • Trade unions
  • End users
  • Operators
external issues
External Issues
  • Factors within a Project Manager’s sphere of responsibility, but which he or she has no formal control or authority over:
    • Corporate interests
    • Operating priorities
    • Financial interests
    • Government interests and actions
    • Public interests
    • Economic conditions
    • Social priorities
stakeholders94
Stakeholders
  • How to find them?
    • Ask who will decide on the success of your project
  • How to involve them?
    • Ask for (appropriate) advice
    • Get their buy-in to project plans
stakeholders95
Stakeholders
  • How to work with them?
    • Active listening
    • Understand their interests and needs
    • Keep everyone informed
  • How to keep them on side?
    • Respond to concerns
    • Manage expectations and make adjustments
common concerns
Common Concerns
  • Political fallout
  • Social, cultural, economic impacts
  • Benefits:
    • Training
    • Employment
    • Business opportunity
  • “Way of life” Just go away!
common concerns97
Common Concerns
  • Public Involvement - Right to know
  • Environmental protection and conservation
  • Loss of control
  • Fear of change
  • Power and influence
  • Native land claims
stakeholder management process
Stakeholder Management Process
  • Monitoring
  • Analysis
  • Assessment
  • Applications
    • Educate and communicate
    • Mitigate
    • Compensate
  • Appraisal and feedback
slide99
Stakeholder Analysis

STAKEHOLDER

Their Objective/Purpose

Their Strategy

Their Potential Impact on

the project

How They Operate

Where they gain Support

How to Manage them

and your plan for

mitigation

Fundamentals of Project Management

Tool Kit

summary
Summary
  • Understand the role of the various stakeholders
  • Identify the real nature of each stakeholder and their interest in the project
  • Understand their motivation and behaviour
summary101
Summary
  • Issues external to the project that can impact the outcome of a project
  • Project manager should:
    • Understand what they are
    • Consider them early
    • Analyze their potential impact
    • Decide which to mitigate and have a plan
summary102
Summary
  • Assess how they will react to various approaches
  • Remember that projects managed in ignorance of External Influences:
    • Never get off the ground
    • Mid-flight crash
    • Technical success but commercial failure
charter overview document
Charter/Overview Document
  • The “define” phase focuses on producing a project Charter/Overview document which is used as:
    • A tool in the initial “go/no go” decision by management
    • A general information document for other managers
    • An early statement of the project goal and direction
    • A statement of the problems and opportunities to be addressed by the project
charter overview document104
Charter/Overview Document
  • Once the project is approved for go ahead, the Project Charter/Overview becomes the foundation for the detailed planning activities which follow and:
    • Provides a control point for reporting project progress and an audit point
    • Reference base for addressing questions and conflicts
    • Tool for building the team
slide105
Project overview Project Name - PM Conference Project Manager

Problem/Opportunity

Membership in PM Association has declined in the past four years and attendance at

conference has declined in past three years. The viability and financial stability of the organization depends on maintaining membership and successful annual conference.

Goal

Reverse the downward trend in membership and annual conference attendance

Objectives

1. Develop the Program

2. Set the Conference Site and Date

3. Design and Implement the Marketing Plan

Success Criteria

1. At least 50 of previous years conferences attendees will attend

2. At least 150 of 450 members will attend

3. At least 1.5% of the non-members receiving conference brochure will attend

4. At least 5% of the non-member attendees will join PM

Assumptions and Risks

1. Interest in PM can be renewed through the annual conference

2. A quality professional program will attract members and non-members

3. Key speaker(s) fail to show up or submit written paper.

Prepared by Date Approved by Date

summary106
Summary
  • When defining a project you should be able to:
    • Describe what is expected
    • Define the project characteristics
    • Develop a project Charter/overview
      • Problem statement
      • Project goal and objectives
      • State the risks and assumptions
      • State success criteria
exercise
Exercise
  • In groups develop a Project Charter/Overview document” for a project you currently involved with
  • Please use “Tool Kit” attached at the conclusion of this book
agenda109
Agenda
  • Work Breakdown Structures (WBS)
  • Estimate Time and Cost
slide110
5 Step Project ManagementPLANNING IMPLEMENTATION

CONTROL

DEFINE

PLAN

ORGANIZE

CLOSE

Identify

project activities

Determine

Personnel

Needs

Obtain

Client

Acceptance

Install

Deliverables

Document

the Project

Issue Final

Report

Conduct Post-

Implementation

Audit

Define

Management

Style

State the Problem

Identify

Project

Goals

Estimate time and cost

Recruit

Project Manger

Establish

Control Tools

Recruit

Project Team

Prepare

Status Reports

Review

Project

Schedule

Issue Change

Orders

Sequence Project Activities

List the

Objectives

Determine

Preliminary

Resources

Identify Critical activities

Organise

Project Team

Identify

Assumptions

and Risks

Write Project Proposal

Assign Work

Packages

Project overview WBS Recruit Criteria Variance Reports Final Report

Project network Define Work packages Status Reports Audit Reports

Critical Path Assign Work Packages Staff Allocation Reports

work breakdown structure wbs
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Reduces complex projects to a series of tasks that can be planned
  • WBS represents the project in the form of a hierarchy of goal, objectives and activities
    • Identifies activities to be done from beginning to completion of the project
  • Foundation for the definition, planning, organising and controlling of the project
composition of a project wbs
Composition of a Project WBS

Overall goal

Objective

Objective

Objective

Activities

Activities

Activities

slide113
WBS
  • Activities in the WBS are broken-down until the entire project is displayed as a network of separately identified activities
  • The breakdown of activities continues until there are no overlapping activities
slide114
WBS
  • Each activity should be:
    • Status and completion are easily measured
    • Of a specific time duration with defined beginning and end
    • Easy to derive time and cost estimates
    • Of a single purpose and have clearly understood deliverables
    • Responsibility for completion clearly assigned
the 5 step procedure example
The 5-step procedure: Example
  • 1. Partition the project into its major objectives
    • 1.1 Develop the Program
    • 1.2 Set the Conference Site and Date
    • 1.3 Design and Implement the Marketing Plan
the 5 step procedure example116
The 5-step procedure: Example
  • 2. Partition the objectives into activities
    • 1.1 Develop the Program
      • 1.1.1 Establish Theme and Topics
      • 1.1.2 Obtain Speakers
      • 1.1.3 Prepare Handout Materials
    • 1.2 Set the Conference Site and Date
      • 1.2.1 Set Conference Date
      • 1.2.2 Select and Commit Conference Site
      • 1.2.3 Confirm Arrangements
    • 1.3 Design and Implement the Marketing Plan
      • 1.3.1 Develop and Print Conference Brochure
      • 1.3.2 Obtain Label Sets for Direct Mail
      • 1.3.3 Mail Conference Brochures
      • 1.3.4 Receive and Acknowledge Registrations
the 5 step procedure example117
The 5-step procedure: Example
  • 3. Check each activity for compliance with activity characteristics and further partition any that do not comply
      • 1.1.3 Prepare Handouts
        • 1.1.3.1 Obtain Handout Materials from Speakers
        • 1.1.3.2 Prepare and Print Conference Notebook
slide119
Hierarchical Representation

CONFERENCE PLANNING

PROGRAM

SITE

MARKETING

THEME

MATERIALS

SPEAKERS

DATE

PLACE

LISTS

BROCHURE

REGISTER

OBTAIN MATERIALS

PREPARE KITS

DESIGN BROCHURE

MAIL BROCHURE

estimating activity time
Estimating Activity Time
  • Time to complete a task is random:
    • Skill levels and knowledge of the individuals
    • Machine/equipment variations
    • Material availability
    • Unexpected events
      • Illness
      • Strikes
      • Employee turnover and accidents
      • Changed soil/site conditions
estimating activity time121
Estimating Activity Time
  • We know unexpected events and occurrences will happen but are unable to predict the likelihood with any confidence
    • We must however account for the possibility of the occurrence of these events
estimating activity time122
Estimating Activity Time
  • Use a statistical relationship if you can estimate
    • Optimistic completion
    • Pessimistic completion time
    • Most likely completion time
  • Can acquire this information from discussions with individuals that have first hand experience in projects
estimating activity time123
Estimating Activity Time
  • Optimistic Completion Time - is the time the activity will take if everything goes right
  • Pessimistic Completion Time - is the time the activity will take if everything that can go wrong does go wrong but the project is still completed
  • Most Likely Completion Time - is the time required under normal circumstances
  • It can also be the completion time that has occurred most frequently in similar circumstances
estimating activity time124
Estimating Activity Time
  • To compute the expected duration time the following formula is used:
  • E = (O+4M+P)/6
  • E = Expected duration time
  • O = Optimistic time
  • M = Most likely time
  • P = Pessimistic time
estimated times for conference planning
Estimated times for conference planning
  • ACTIVITY TIME IN WEEKS

(O) (M) (P) (E)

  • A Set conference date

1.0 2.0 3.0 2.0

  • B Establish theme & program

2.0 5.0 8.0 5.0

  • C Select conference site

4.0 5.0 6.0 5.0

  • D Obtain mailing labels

4.0 6.0 8.0 6.0

  • E Develop brochure

3.0 10.0 11.0 9.0

estimated times for conference planning126
Estimated times for conference planning
  • ACTIVITY TIME IN WEEKS

(O) (M) (P) (E)

  • F Obtain mailing labels

3.0 4.5 9.0 5.0

  • G Mail brochure

1.0 2.0 3.0 2.0

  • H Obtain speaker materials

3.0 3.5 7.0 4.0

  • I Receive registrations

4.0 6.0 8.0 6.0

  • J Confirm arrangements

0.5 1.0 1.5 1.0

  • K Prepare conference kits

1.0 2.0 3.0 2.0

sequencing activities
Sequencing Activities
  • Bar chart
  • Produce a Logical Network
  • Critical Path Method
    • Arrow Diagrams
    • Precedence Diagrams
  • Identify Critical Activities
  • Locate the Critical Path
  • Floats
5 step project management planning implementation128
5 Step Project ManagementPLANNING IMPLEMENTATION

CONTROL

DEFINE

PLAN

ORGANIZE

CLOSE

Identify

project activities

Determine

Personnel

Needs

Obtain

Client

Acceptance

Install

Deliverables

Document

the Project

Issue Final

Report

Conduct Post-

Implementation

Audit

Define

Management

Style

State the Problem

Identify

Project

Goals

Estimate time and cost

Recruit

Project Manger

Establish

Control Tools

Recruit

Project Team

Prepare

Status Reports

Review

Project

Schedule

Issue Change

Orders

Sequence Project Activities

List the

Objectives

Determine

Preliminary

Resources

Identify Critical activities

Organize

Project Team

Identify

Assumptions

and Risks

Write Project Proposal

Assign Work

Packages

bar charts gantt chart
Bar Charts/Gantt Chart
  • Most projects, however complex, start by being depicted on a bar chart. The principles are very simple:
    • Prepare list of project activities
    • Estimate the time and resources needed
    • Represent each activity by a bar
    • Plot activities on a chart with horizontal time scale showing start and end
slide130
Project Schedule - Sample

Project: ____________________

Project Manager: ____________________

Date: _____________

Sample

raci charts
RACI Charts
  • Responsibility - Action - Coordination - Information
  • Identify the roles of participants in each element of a project
  • Effective communications road map
  • 4 to 8 weeks look ahead
raci charts132
RACI Charts
  • Update weekly to:
    • Reset expectations
    • Ensure right people involved in detailed planning
    • Ensure everyone knows what needs to be done by whom
slide133
RACI Charts (F. T. Hartman, 2000)

2.4.5 Major Element Amelia Drover Fred 2-5

Deliverable:_____________________ Manager:___________________ Project:_________

DATES

A C G C F M J W B

D M H F W L S W E

Budget Actual Budget Actual

W/Hrs. W/Hrs. Cost Cost

ACTION

Activity

Another activity

Build something

R A A C I I - I C 120 400

- R C I A A I A - 50 50

R - A C I I - C - 345 1,500

- R C I A A I A - 127 -

R A A C I I - I C 90 9,000

R - A C I I - C - 55 1,700

Another Item

Yet another

Design a bit

Design more

Sneeze

Gesundheit

- A R I C C A I I 455 875

R C A A I C I - - 200 7,785

- R I I C - - - - 65 -

Another thing

Wait for item

More stuff

Finish

A C R - C I C - - 20 100,000

- I C A A R I A I 655 -

R A - I C I A A A 80 -

A I C I I A A A R 12 100

video the power of scheduling
Video: The Power of Scheduling
  • How long it takes to build a house?
cpm critical path method
CPM: Critical Path Method
  • Graphic network based scheduling technique
    • Arrow Diagrams
    • Precedence Diagrams
  • Use activities created by the WBS process
  • Analysis of timing and sequencing logic
    • Aids in identifying complex interrelationship of activities
cpm critical path method136
CPM: Critical Path Method
  • Allows for easy revision of schedule and simulation and evaluation of the impact of changes
  • Also used as a control tool during execution of the project
producing a logical network
Producing a Logical Network
  • The sequencing identifies activities that must be completed before another activity can start and which activities can occur simultaneously. Different methods:
  • 1. “Low-tech” approach: use post-it labels
    • Each label has one activity written on it
    • Through iterative process the labels can be arranged and rearranged
producing a logical network138
Producing a Logical Network
  • 2. Ask yourself the following:
    • Which activities must be completed before this activity starts?
    • Which activity cannot start until this activity is completed?
    • Which activities have no logical relationship with this activity and therefore take place at the same time (concurrent activities)?
producing a logical network139
Producing a Logical Network
  • 3. Identify immediate predecessor activities, which are activities that must be completed before another activity can begin
steps in producing a networks
Steps in Producing a Networks
  • List the activities
  • Produce a logical network of activities
  • Assess the duration of each activity
  • Produce a schedule - determine the start and finish times and the float available for each activity
steps in producing a networks141
Steps in Producing a Networks
  • Determine the time required to complete a project and the the longest path on the network
    • The longest path is the Critical Path
  • Assess the resources required
activity sequencing
Activity sequencing
  • ACTIVITY IMMED. TIME(WEEKS)

PRED. (E)

  • A Set conference date - 2.0
  • B Establish theme/program - 5.0
  • C Select conference site A 5.0
  • D Obtain speakers B 6.0
  • E Develop brochure C,D 9.0
  • F Obtain mailing labels C,D 5.0
  • G Mail brochure E,F 2.0
  • H Obtain speaker materials D 4.0
  • I Receive registrations G 6.0
  • J Confirm all arrangements H,I 1.0
  • K Prepare conference kits J 2.0
sample network
Sample Network

a

c

e

g

i

start

j

k

end

f

b

d

h

activity times critical path
Activity Times/Critical Path

0

2 7 11 20

59 20 22 22 28

26 28 29 29 31

2

a 2

c

e

4 6 6 11 11 20

g

i

Start

11 16

20 22 22 28

j1

k2

End

f5

0 5 5 11

11 15

28 29 29 31

b5

d6

h4

15 20

0 5 5 11

24 28

critical path
Critical Path
  • Calculations for precedence diagrams and arrow diagrams are essentially the same
  • Critical path is where there is zero slack time
  • If an activity takes longer than estimated on the critical path then the project will be delayed
  • The critical path can change if there is a delay that make an alternative path longer
float slack
Float (Slack)
  • Slack or float time is amount of delay that could be tolerated in the start or completion time without causing a delay in completion of the project
  • Total float or calculations to determine how long each activity could be delayed without delaying the project
  • Total float = LF - ES - duration
summary147
Summary
  • Critical path identifies the project time requirements
  • Slack or float time is amount of delay that could be tolerated in the start or completion time without causing a delay in completion of the project
  • Zero slack time equals the critical path
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