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Disaster Planning

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  1. Disaster Planning • A hurricane blasts through Gulf Coast causing estimated damages in the billions, approximate hundreds deaths, ?? Evacuated and displaced. • A hurricane blasts through South Florida causing more than $25 billion in damages • An explosion at an oil refinery results in 15 Deaths and record fines of a company. • A fire a food processing plant results in 25 deaths, a company out of business and a small town devastated. • Planes hit the World Trade Center and Pentagon resulting in thousands dead and untold Damages. Years earlier a bombing at the World Trade Center result six deaths and 40, 000 evacuated. • A blizzard hits the East Coast for days. More than 150 lives are lost and millions in damages incurred.

  2. Disaster (Emergency) Planning • What is an Disaster (Emergency)? Any unplanned event that can cause deaths or significant injuries to employees, customers or the public; or that can shut down your business, disrupt operations, cause physical or environmental damage, or threaten the facility’s financial standing or public image. What are some examples of emergencies? Fire (internal/external) Explosion Dam/Levee Break Hazmat incident Earthquake Mudslide Flood or flash flood Tsunami Entrapment Hurricane Communications Failure Confined Space Incident Tornado Radiological accident Terrorist Incident Winter Storm Civil Disturbance (Workplace Violence) Heat Wave Loss of Key Supplier

  3. Emergency Management • What is Emergency Management? It is the process of planning, training, conducting drills, testing equipment and coordinating activities with the community. • Planning Process Includes 4 main steps: • Step 1 - Establish a Planning Team • Step 2 - Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Step 3 - Develop the Plan • Step 4 - Implement the Plan

  4. Emergency Planning Team Community Emergency Manager Fire & Police Other Response Organizations Communications Public Relations Public Information Officer Management & Personnel Line Management Labor Representative Human Resources Safety Office / Planning Team Emergency Response Safety & Health Medical Security Environmental Affairs Support Services Engineering IT / Computer Data Maintenance Purchasing/ Contracts Maintenance

  5. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Review Internal Plans and Polices • Evacuation Plan • Emergency Response Plan • Fire Protection Plan • Hazmat Plans • Security Procedures • Environmental Plans • Finance and Purchasing procedures • Plant closing policy • Employee manuals • Process safety assessment • Risk Management plan T • Mutual Aid agreements

  6. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Review Internal Plans and Polices Meet with Outside Groups • Evacuation Plan EMA • Emergency Response Plan May or Community Admins. Office • Fire Protection Plan LEPC • Hazmat Plans Fire Department • Security Procedures Police Department • Environmental Plans EMS Organizations • Finance and Purchasing procedures Med flight / AirEvac • Plant closing policy American Red Cross • Employee manuals National Weather Service • Process safety assessment Public Works / Electrical Utilities • Risk Management plan Telephone • Mutual Aid agreements Neighboring businesses *

  7. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Identify Codes and Regulations • Identify Critical Products, Services (lifeline) and Operations • Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities • Personnel • Equipment • Facilities - Command center on-site, off-site, media briefing area, shelter areas, first-aid stations, sanitation stations

  8. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Identify Codes and Regulations • Identify Critical Products, Services (lifeline) and Operations • Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities • Organization capabilities - training, evacuation plan, employee support plan

  9. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Identify Codes and Regulations • Identify Critical Products, Services (lifeline) and Operations • Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities • Organization capabilities - training, evacuation plan, employee support plan • Back-up systems - arrangements with other facilities to provide for the following: • Payroll Shipping and Receiving • Communications Information Systems support (next of kin) • Production Emergency Power • Customer services Recovery Support - Engineering

  10. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Identify Codes and Regulations • Identify Critical Products, Services (lifeline) and Operations • Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities • Organization capabilities - training, evacuation plan, employee support plan • Back-up systems - arrangements with other facilities • Identify External Resources • Local EMA Community Organizations • Fire Department Contractors • HazMat Response Suppliers of Emergency Equipment • EMS Insurance Carriers • Hospitals Utilities • Local and State Police, Bomb Squad

  11. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Identify Codes and Regulations • Identify Critical Products, Services (lifeline) and Operations • Identify Internal Resources and Capabilities • Organization capabilities - training, evacuation plan, employee support plan • Back-up systems - arrangements with other facilities • Identify External Resources • Do an Insurance Review

  12. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Within and outside your facility in the community • Historical emergencies • Geographic

  13. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Within and outside your facility in the community • Historical emergencies • Geographic • Proximity to flood plains, seismic faults and dams • Proximity to companies that produce, store, use or transport hazardous materials including transport by rail or water • Proximity to major transportation routes and airports • Proximity to nuclear power plants

  14. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Within and outside your facility in the community • Historical emergencies • Geographic • Technological - What could result from a process or system failure?

  15. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Within and outside your facility in the community • Historical emergencies • Geographic • Technological - What could result from a process or system failure? • Fire, explosion, hazardous material incident • Safety system failure • Telecommunications failure • Computer System failure • Heating / Cooling failure • Emergency Notification System failure

  16. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Within and outside your facility in the community • Historical emergencies • Geographic • Technological • Human Error - What emergencies can be caused by employee error? Are employees adequately trained to work safely? Do they know what to do in an emergency? Do they know what could happen as a result of their error?

  17. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Within and outside your facility in the community • Historical emergencies • Geographic • Technological • Human Error • Physical - What types of emergencies could result form the design or construction of the facility? Does the physical facility enhance safety?

  18. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Within and outside your facility in the community • Historical emergencies • Geographic • Technological • Human Error • Physical - What types of emergencies could result form the design or construction of the facility? Does the physical facility enhance safety? • Physical construction of the facility Lighting • Hazardous process or byproducts Evacuation Routes • Layout of equipment Proximity of shelter areas • Facilities storing combustibles / flammables

  19. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Estimate Probability - Some companies just address with a high, medium or low while others use a simple scale of 1 to 5 with 1 as the lowest probability and 5 as the highest

  20. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Estimate Probability • Assess the Potential Human Impact - the possibility of death or injury and assign a rating similar high, medium, low or the 1 to 5 scale with 1 as the lowest impact and 5 the highest.

  21. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Estimate Probability • Assess the Potential Human Impact • Assess the Potential Property Impact - Again assign a rating, • consider cost to replace • cost to set up temporary replacement • cost to repair

  22. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Estimate Probability • Assess the Potential Human Impact • Assess the Potential Property Impact • Assess the Potential for Business Impact - Assign a rating for the impact of • business interruption • employees unable to report to work • customers unable to reach facility • company in violation of contractual agreements • Imposition of fines an penalties or legal costs • Interruption of critical supplies • Interruption of product distribution

  23. Analyze Capabilities and Hazards • Conduct a Vulnerability Analysis • List Potential Emergencies • Estimate Probability • Assess the Potential Human Impact • Assess the Potential Property Impact • Assess the Potential for Business Impact - Assign a rating for the impact of • Assess Internal and External Resources - Assign a score to your internal and external resources by considering each potential emergency form beginning to end and each resources that would be needed to respond. For each emergency ask these questions: • Do we have the needed resources an capabilities to respond? • Will external resources be able to respond to us for the emergency as quickly as we need them, or will they have other priority areas to serve?

  24. Develop the Plan • Plan Components • Executive Summary • Purpose • Facilities emergency policy • Authorities and responsibilities of key personnel • They types of emergencies that could occur • Where response operations will be managed

  25. Develop the Plan • Plan Components • Executive Summary • Emergency Management Elements • Describes the facilities approach to the core elements • Direction and control • Communication • Life Safety • Property Protection • Community Outreach • Recovery and restoration • Administration and Logistics

  26. Develop the Plan • Plan Components • Executive Summary • Emergency Management Elements • Emergency Response Procedures • These spell out how the facility will respond to emergencies determining what actions would be necessary to • Assess the situation • Protect the employees, customers, visitors, equipment, vital records and other assets, particularly during the first three days • Get the business back up and running

  27. Develop the Plan • Plan Components • Executive Summary • Emergency Management Elements • Emergency Response Procedures • These spell out how the facility will respond to emergencies determining what actions would be necessary to • Assess the situation • Protect the employees, customers, visitors, equipment, vital records and other assets, particularly during the first three days • Get the business back up and running • They include checklists that can be quickly accessed by senior management, department heads, response personnel and employees

  28. Develop the Plan • Plan Components • Executive Summary • Emergency Management Elements • Emergency Response Procedures - Include but not limited to • Warning employees, visitors, customers, transportation traffic of various situations such as bomb threats, tornadoes, flooding • Accounting for employees • Communicating with personnel and community responders • Conduction evacuations • Managing response activities (medial, rescue, clean up, decon, fire fighting) • Activating and operating an emergency operations center • Shutting down operations & Restoring operations

  29. Develop the Plan • Plan Components • Executive Summary • Emergency Management Elements • Emergency Response Procedures • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists (wallet size if possible) of all person on and off site who would be involved in responding to an emergency with their 24 hour number • Building and site maps that indicate • Electrical cutoffs and substations • Water hydrants & Water main valves • Gas Main Valves and lines

  30. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Storm drains & Sewer lines • Floor plans (exits, stairways, escape routes) • Restricted areas • Hazardous Materials Including cleaning supplies • High value items - Security Items - Top/Trade secret

  31. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists • Building and site maps • Resource Lists (equipment, supplies, services) • Identify Challenges and Prioritize Activities

  32. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists • Building and site maps • Resource Lists (equipment, supplies, services) • Identify Challenges and Prioritize Activities • Set specific goals and milestones • Assign responsibilities and track to completion • Determine how you will address the problem areas and resource shortfalls that were identified in the vulnerability analysis.

  33. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists • Building and site maps • Resource Lists (equipment, supplies, services) • Identify Challenges and Prioritize Activities • Write the plan

  34. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists • Building and site maps • Resource Lists (equipment, supplies, services) • Identify Challenges and Prioritize Activities • Write the plan • First draft • Review • Second draft • Tapletop exercise • Printing • Distribution

  35. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists • Building and site maps • Resource Lists (equipment, supplies, services) • Identify Challenges and Prioritize Activities • Write the plan • Establish a Training Schedule

  36. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists • Building and site maps • Resource Lists (equipment, supplies, services) • Identify Challenges and Prioritize Activities • Write the plan • Establish a Training Schedule • Coordinate with Outside agencies - Critical *

  37. Develop the Plan • Plan Components Continued • Supporting Documents - Include but not limited to • Emergency call lists • Building and site maps • Resource Lists (equipment, supplies, services) • Identify Challenges and Prioritize Activities • Write the plan • Establish a Training Schedule • Coordinate with Outside agencies - Critical * • Which gate or entrance will responders use • Where and to whom will they report? Integrated command? Whose in charge? • How will they be identified? • How will facility personnel communicate with outside responders?

  38. Implement the Plan Implementing means more than exercising the plan during an emergency. It means acting on recommendations made during the vulnerability analysis, integrating the plan into company operations, training employees, conducting table top and walk-through drills and full-scale exercises including evacuation and then evaluating the plan on a regular basis. Plan for things to fail. Nothing ever goes perfect in an emergency. Everyone is not always in the right place, the equipment does always work right, employees don’t always no what to do.

  39. National Incident Management System National Incident Management System (NIMS) – Develop and administer a National Incident Management System. Consistent nationwide template to enable all government, private-sector, and nongovernmental organizations to work together. Past and Current emergencies teaching us the need for a coordinated response – especially standardization and flexibility.

  40. NIMS • NIMS employs two levels of incident management structure, depending on the nature of the incident. • Incident Command System (ICS) is a standard, on-scene, all-hazard incident management system. ICS allows users to adopt an integrated organizational structure to match the needs of single or multiple incidents. • Multi-agency Coordination Systems are a combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures and communications integrated into a common framework for coordinating and supporting incident management.

  41. Incident Command System • Common terminology – Plain English • Organizational resources – personnel, facilities, equipment • Manageable span of control – may vary from three to seven, ratio of one supervisor (chief) to five reporting elements • Organizational facilities – Command Post • Use of position titles – Only one Commander • Reliance on an Incident Action Plan – Develop, Issue assignments, plans, procedures, protocols. Direct efforts to obtain objectives. • Integrated communications – hardware systems, use all available frequencies and resources, transfer of information internally and externally. • Accountability – Orderly chain of command, check-in for all responders regardless of affiliation, each individual assigned only one supervisor – not multiple

  42. Incident Command System • Unified command is an application of ICS that used when: • There is more than one responding agency within a jurisdiction. • Incidents cross political jurisdictions. • Under a Unified command, agencies work together through the designated members of the command to analyze intelligence information and establish a common set of objectives and strategies for a single Incident Action Plan. • Example. Hazmat spill that contaminates a nearby waterway. Involves, fire department, water authority, and local environmental authority.

  43. Incident Command System • Unified command is an application of ICS that used when: • There is more than one responding agency within a jurisdiction. • Incidents cross political jurisdictions. • Under a Unified command, agencies work together through the designated members of the command to analyze intelligence information and establish a common set of objectives and strategies for a single Incident Action Plan. • Example. Hazmat spill that contaminates a nearby waterway. Involves, fire department, water authority, and local environmental authority. • FEMA ICS Self-Study class goes into detail & provides checklist for each operation. Unified Command (Representatives from local Jurisdictions) Operations Planning Logistics Finance / Admin

  44. Incident Command System • An Area Command is established to: • Oversee the management of multiple incidents that are each being managed by an ICS organization. • Oversee the management of large incidents that cross jurisdictional boundaries. • Responsible for • Setting overall strategy and priorities. • Allocating critical resources according to priorities. • Ensuring that incidents are properly managed. • Ensuring that objectives are met and strategies are followed. • An Area command may become a Unified Area Command when incidents are multi-jurisdictional or involve multiple agencies. Such as public health issues. Example (suspicious flu-like virus has broken out across the state).

  45. Multiple Agency Coordination • Large or wide-scale emergencies that require higher-level resource management or information management. • This a combination of resources that are integrated into a common framework for coordinating and supporting domestic incident management activities: • Facilities Equipment • Personnel Procedures • Communications • Regardless of form or structure – these Entities are responsible for • Ensuring each involved agency is providing situation and resource status information. • Establishing priorities between incidents. • Acquiring and Allocating Resources required by incident management personnel. • Coordinating and identifying future resource requirements. • Coordinating and resolving policy issues. • Providing strategic coordination.

  46. Securing the Scene • When an incident occurs, small or large, natural or otherwise the first responders on the scene must ensure it is safe to enter and the secure it. • Personnel Safety • Entry to chemical spill or medial emergency – size up the situation, observe the hazards, respond accordingly. Remove all unneeded personnel. Secure access to incident. • Entry after flooding, hurricane, tornado • Possible hazards: Electrical hazards, Structural hazards, Chemical exposures, Snakes, Insects, Mold, Portable generators, Handling human remains, etc. (See OSHA website-Flash cards for Disaster Recovery Hazards.) • Entry after fire, explosion • Structural hazards, water damage, etc.

  47. Securing the Scene • When an incident occurs, small or large, natural or otherwise the first responders on the scene must ensure it is safe to enter and the secure it. • Scene Safety • Preserve the scene with pictures, drawings, accounting for all things at the incident. • Examples, workplace violence events; Plane crashes – know where everything landed and in what order; equipment malfunctions – know what mode the equipment was in when the incident occurred, which direction the valves turned, was it in manual or automatic, what was the malfunction, how is it operating know. Allow no one to touch equipment except to prevent any further releases of chemicals. Print out the PLC logic. • Interview immediately to ensure more accurate accounting of the details. Learn the sequence of events that lead to an incident. What was happening prior to the incident, what was the results. Any written permits, monitoring data, any relevant personnel records, email, documentation of conversations.

  48. Securing the Scene • When an incident occurs, small or large, natural or otherwise the first responders on the scene must ensure it is safe to enter and the secure it. • Personnel Safety • Entry to chemical spill or medial emergency – size up the situation, observe the hazards, respond accordingly. Remove all unneeded personnel. Secure access to incident. • Entry after flooding, hurricane, tornado • Possible hazards: Electrical hazards, Structural hazards, Chemical exposures, Snakes, Insects, Mold, Portable generators, Handling human remains, etc. (See OSHA website-Flash cards for Disaster Recovery Hazards.) • Entry after fire, explosion • Structural hazards, water damage, etc. • Scene Safety • Preserve the scene with pictures, drawings, accounting for all things at the incident. • Interview immediately to ensure more accurate accounting of the details

  49. Clean Up Recovery - Debris Planning • Volume of debris is sometimes underestimated • Examples: • Metro-Dade County, FL – Hurricane Andrew 1992 • 43 million cubic yards of disaster debris in just this county • Los Angeles, CA – Northridge Earthquake 1994 • 7 million cubic yards of debris

  50. Clean Up Recovery - Debris Planning • Major categories of Disaster Debris • Damaged buildings • Sediments • Green Waste • Personal Property • Ash or Charred Wood • Considerations • How many years of landfill space will this debris take up? • Can it be recycled, reused, chipped or ground into mulch, incinerated? • How will you sort it