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ADRENAL CORTEX AND ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES

ADRENAL CORTEX AND ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES

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ADRENAL CORTEX AND ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES

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  1. ADRENAL CORTEX AND ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES

  2. Adrenal glandsaretwopyramid-shapedstructuresthat sit on top of thekidneys, oneglandeachkidney.

  3. Adrenal glandsreleasehormonesthathelpthe body prepareforanddealwithstress.

  4. An adrenal gland has an outerpartcalledtheadrenal cortexandinnerpartcalledtheadrenal medulla.

  5. ADRENAL CORTEX • About 80 % percent of adrenal cortexproducesmorethantwodozensteroidhormonescalledcorticosteroids. • ALDOSTERONE • CORTISOL

  6. Aldosteron • Aldosteronregulatesthereabsorption of sodiumionsandexcretion of potassiumionsbykidneys.

  7. Cortisol • Helpscontrol rate of metabolism of carbonhydrates, fatsandproteins. • Helpspeoplecopewithstress.

  8. Adrenal CortexDisorders • Addisondisease • Cushingsyndrome

  9. AddisonDisease • Weightloss • Lowbloodpressure • General weakness

  10. CushingSyndrome • Obesity • Increasedbloodsugarlevels • Highbloodpressure • Weakening of thebones

  11. ADRENAL MEDULLA • Adrenal medulla is a specializedpart of thesympatheticnervoussystem. Forthisreason, the adrenaline andnoradrenalineit secretes arecalledneurohormones. • Adrenaline is sometimesknownepinephrine. • Thewords adrenaline andepinephrinearederivedfrom Latin andGreekwords, andmean “nearthekidneys”.

  12. Adrenal medullaproducesthe “fightorflight” responsetostress. Thisresponse is thefeeling, youareexcitedorfrightened.

  13. ADRENAL MEDULLA HORMONES • Adrenaline • Noradrenaline

  14. Adrenaline • causes the heart rate to increase, • respiration rate to increase, • smooth muscle in air ways to relax, • muscles in the arteries to contract and • glucose levels to increase.

  15. Noradrenaline • Noradrenaline or norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter released by the nerve cells. • Its chemical structure as well as function is similar to adrenaline. • It increases bloodpressure by constricting the blood vessels. This action normalizes heartbeat due to which breathing becomes more deep and normal.  •  The main purpose of Noradrenaline is to normalize life threatening low bloodpressure (acute hypotension).

  16. Noradrenaline deficiency can lead to tiredness, fatique, lethargy and sullenness.