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Types of morphemes. Lec . 2. Morphology & Morphemes . Our morphological knowledge has two components: knowledge of the individual morphemes, and knowledge of the rules that combine them. Morphology = morph + ology (science of word forms) Words consist of meaningful units

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morphology morphemes
Morphology & Morphemes
  • Our morphological knowledge has two components: knowledge of the individual morphemes, and knowledge of the rules that combine them.
  • Morphology = morph + ology (science of word forms)
  • Words consist of meaningful units
  • E.g. writers, reading, unripe, overdose, kingdom
morphology morphemes1
Morphology & Morphemes

Morphology is concerned with the structure of words which is part of the implicit linguistic knowledge of all native speakers, whether or not they know anything about the history of the language they speak.

e.g.

help, helpful, helpfulness, helpless, helplessness  HELP

examples
Examples
  • One morpheme
  • Two morphemes
  • Three morphemes
  • Four morphemes
  • desire
  • desirable
  • desirability
  • undesirability
roots
Roots
  • Root:

A morpheme which is the basic part of a word and which may, in many languages, occur on its own. (man, hold, book).

A root is the base form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. It is that part of the word left when all the affixes are removed.

e.g.

Knowingly – brainlessness – rediscover – insufferable– actions - breakage

roots1
Roots

Roots may be joined to other roots (house +hold = household(, and/ or take affixes

ROOT word-forms

walk walks, walking, walked,

  • (house + hold= household), and/ or take affixes
  • (man + ly = manly)
  • (cold +ness = coldness)
  • (manly, coldness).
exercise
Exercise
  • Identify the roots in each of the followings:
  • knowingly rediscover
  • brainlessness insufferable
  • untainted disinherited
  • Unrepeated undeveloped
  • Paranormal McDonaldization
  • unrepeated
morphological morphemes
Morphological Morphemes

Morphemes

FREE BOUND

BASES

AFFIXES

pathology

Frog

prefixes infixes suffixes

free bound
Free & bound
  • Roots can be either free morphemes or bound morphemes
i free morphemes
I. Free morphemes
  • Free morphemes are roots which can stand on their own

Man – book – tea – sweet – cook – bet – very – aardvark – pain – rose -understand

  • Lexical morphemes
  • Function words
i free morphemes1
I. Free morphemes

*Content words

Lexical morphemes

Function words

  • Nouns (frog– man-John)
  • Adjectives (good – kind )
  • Verbs (walk- write)
  • Adverbs (very – well)
  • Prepositions (with – to –in )
  • Articles (the – a – an)
  • Demonstratives (this – that )
  • Pronouns (I– she – it – they)
  • Conjunctions (and – but)
ii bound morphemes affixes
II. Bound morphemes/ Affixes
  • Bound morphemes are roots which cannot stand on their own. They always occur as being attached to other morphemes.
  • -mitpermit – commit – admit
  • -ceiveperceive – receive – conceive – deceive
  • -ologybiology – psychology - pathology
ii bound morphemes affixes1
II. Bound morphemes/ Affixes
  • An affix is abound morpheme that can be added to a word (root), and which changes the meaning or function of the word. There are 3 types of affixes:
  • a prefixis attached before a root (re-, un-, dis-, im-)
  • a suffixis attached after a root (-ly, -er, -ist,-s)
  • an infix is attached within a root
exercise1
Exercise
  • Identify the affixes:

unemployment moralize

untouchable alcoholic

unsystematically mistreatment

present (v) unbelievable

misunderstand inaccurate

friendship enlarge

abstraction darken

slide15
Base
  • A base is any unit to which affixes of any kind can be added:
  • inflectional affixes (syntactic reasons)
  • derivational affixes (meaning and/ or grammatical category)
  • All ROOTS are BASES
slide16
Stem
  • That part of a word that occurs before an inflectional affixis or can be added. For example, (book + s = books).
  • The stem of a word may be:
  • A simple stem consisting of only one morpheme (a root), e.g. work
  • A root plus a derivational affix, e.g. work + er =worker
  • Two or more roots, e.g. work + shop = workshop.
inflectional morphemes
Inflectional morphemes
  • Inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes that have a strictly grammatical function. Inflectional morphemes never change the syntactic category of the words or morphemes to which they are attached.
  • E.g.
  • I sail the ocean blue
  • He sails the ocean blue
  • John sailed the ocean blue
  • John has sailed the ocean blue
  • John is sailing the ocean blue
english inflectional morphemes
English Inflectional Morphemes
  • -s (third-person singular plural)
  • -ed(past tense)
  • -ing (progressive)
  • -en (past participle)
  • -s (plural)
  • -’s (possessive)
  • -er(comparative)
  • -est(superlative)
inflectional morphemes1
Inflectional morphemes
  • Unlike derivational morphemes, inflectional morphemes:
  • don’t change the part of speech
  • don’t pile up, only one ends a word
examples1
Examples
  • Cats
  • Oxen
  • Treated
  • Larger
  • Talking
  • Shortest
  • Asks
  • John’s
  • Mother-in-laws
  • Commitments
  • Sunburns
  • Morphemes
derivational morphemes
Derivational Morphemes
  • Derivational morphemes are bound morphemes that are added to a root morpheme or stem to derive a new word with a new meaning. Derivational morphemes sometimes change the word-class that a base belongs to, and/ or change the meaning of the base to which they are attached. Derivational morphemes have clear semantic content, and some DA can be treated as independent words (e.g. full)
  • E.g.
  • Pure (n)  purify (v)
  • Logic (n)  logical (adj)
derivational morphemes1
Derivational Morphemes
  • Derivational morphemes are of 3 types:
  • Prefixes
  • Infixes
  • Suffixes
  • Other bound morphemes (pathology)
derivational morphemes2
Derivational morphemes
  • Unlike inflectional morphemes, derivational morphemes:
  • sometimes change the word-class
  • the way they combine with base is mainly arbitrary
  • more than one DA can be added to the base
  • E.g.
  • antidisestablishment
english derivational morphemes class changing
English Derivational Morphemesclass-changing

1. Nouns  Adjective

2. Verbs  Noun

  • health + full = healthful
  • boy + ish = boyish
  • Elizabeth + an = Elizabethan
  • life + like = lifelike
  • alcohol + ic = alcoholic
  • picture + esque = picturesque
  • affection + ate = afectionate
  • virtue + ous = virtuous
  • brand + ish = brandish
  • propose + al = proposal
  • clear + ance = clearance
  • accuse + ation = accusation
  • confer + ence = conference
  • free + dom = freedom
  • sing + er = singer
  • predict + ion = prediction
english derivational morphemes class changing1
English Derivational Morphemesclass-changing

3. Adjective  adverb

Nouns  verbs

  • exact + ly = exactly
  • quiet + ly = quietly
  • moral + ize = moralize
  • vaccine + ate = vaccinate
  • haste + n = hasten
english derivational morphemes class changing2
English Derivational Morphemesclass-changing

Adjectives  Noun

Verb  Adjective

  • tall + ness = tallness
  • specific + ity = specificity
  • feudal + ism = feudalism
  • abstract + ion = abstraction
  • true + th = truth
  • read + able = readable
  • create + ive = creative
  • run + y = runny
  • migrat + ory = migratory
english derivational morphemes class maintaining
English Derivational Morphemesclass-maintaining

Noun  Noun

Verb  Verb

  • friend + ship = friendship
  • human + ity = humanity
  • man + hood = manhood
  • king + dom = kingdom
  • un + do = undo
  • re + cover = recover
english derivational morphemes class maintaining1
English Derivational Morphemesclass-maintaining

Adjective  Adjective

  • pink + ish = pinkish
  • in + flammable = inflammable
english derivational morphemes class changing3
English Derivational Morphemesclass-changing
  • N  V joy-enjoy
  • V  N motivate - motivation
  • N  Adj. care - careful
  • Adj.  N true - truth
  • Adj. V soft –soften / wide - widen
  • Adj.  Adv. careful - carefully
english derivational morphemes class maintaining2
English Derivational Morphemesclass-maintaining
  • N N (concrete abstract)

Man  manhood

King kingdom

Friend friendship

exercise2
Exercise
  • Identify the inflectional affixes, derivational affixes, roots, bases, & stems in the following:
  • unbelievable - actors – renewed – faithfully
  • mistreatment - pickpockets – window-cleaners
  • insanity – psychology – shortest - unhappiness
  • unspeakable – uncivilized – McDonaldization - mistreatment