All these quotes are from Napoleon. What do they tell you about him? • “Power is my mistress. I have worked too hard at her conquest to allow anyone to take her away from me.” • “There are but two powers in the world, the sword and the mind. In the long run the sword is always beaten by the mind." • “Impossible is a word to be found only in the dictionary of fools.” • "He that makes war without many mistakes has not made war very long." • “Death is nothing, but to live defeated and inglorious is to die daily.” • “Ten people who speak make more noise than ten thousand who are silent.” • “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon”. • “I know when it is necessary, how to leave the skin of lion to take one of fox.” • “A man will fight harder for his interests than for his rights.” • “A throne is only a bench covered with velvet.” • “Religion is what keeps the poor from murdering the rich.”
The Rise and Fall of Napoleon’s Empire How does this Picture reflect the information you gathered from the quotes?
Church Representatives Empress Josephine
Napoleon---”Men of genius are meteors destined to burn themselves out in lighting up their age.”
Napoleon: “Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide.”
Napoleon: “Glory is fleeting, but obscurity is forever.”
Edmund Burke’s Prediction:True or False? Edmund Burke (1729-1797) was a British parliamentarian and political philosopher sometimes referred to as the ‘father of conservatism’. Written straight after the French Revolution began Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790) was strongly antirevolutionary, arguing that revolution would destroy also all that was good in society, create disorder, and lead ultimately to the coming to power of a tyrant seen as capable of restoring order.
Rise of Napoleon • Artilleryman promoted from Captain to Brevet Brigadier General. • Won acclaim in Toulon in 1793. • Defended the French government by using cannons against mobs in 1795. • Student of the military art • Voracious reader
Napoleon’s First Major Military Campaign---Italian Campaign • Invaded Italy in 1796 • Secured 12 victories in 12 months • Rapid maneuver • To and in battle • Concentrated his mass against enemy weaknesses • Interior lines • Flexible maneuver • Revolutionary politics appealed to Italians • It was in Italy that Napoleon realized he was headed for greatness. He was aware that he was a “world-historical figure”, a “great man”, and “a hero in history.” • He later confided: “In Italy I realized I was a superior being and conceived the ambition of performing great things, which hitherto had filled my thoughts only as a fantastic dream.”
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Napoleon’s Rise to Power Earlier military career the Italian Campaigns: 1796-1797 he conquered most of northern Italy for France, and had developed a taste for governing. In northern Italy, he moved to suppress religious orders, end serfdom, and limit age-old noble privilege.
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Napoleon and Venice • 1797: Napoleon, being master of all northern Italy, with the exception of Venice, the mistress of the Adriatic, though no longer qualified to keep equal rank with the first princes of Europe, was still proud and haughty, and not likely to omit any favourable opportunity of aiding Austria in the great and common object of ridding Italy of the French. • Napoleon wished to make an ally of Venice. • To her government he said ….. • "Your whole territory is imbued with revolutionary principles. One single word from me will excite a blaze of insurrection through all your provinces. Ally yourself with France, make a few modifications in your government, such as are indispensable for the welfare of the people, and we will pacify public opinion and will sustain your authority." • Advice more prudent and humane could not have been given, but Venice was not to take it!
Napoleonic Campaign in Egypt:1798-1801 • Napoleon’s attempt to seize Egypt and undermine Britain’s access to India • Napoleon took control of Egypt on land • Brought along scientists • Studied the pyramids, etc. • Discovered the Rosetta stone • British took control of Egypt and all discoveries following the defeat of the French forces in Egypt • Battle of the Nile – August 1-3, 1798 • Britain’s Horatio Nelson defeated French naval forces • Napoleon and his troops became stranded in Egypt • August, 1799 – Napoleon snuck past the British blockade in the Mediterranean and returned to Paris
Napoleon’s Rise to Power: Egypt Earlier military career the Egyptian Campaign: 1798 he was defeated by a British navy under Admiral Horatio Nelson, who destroyed the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile. Abandoning his troops in Egypt, Napoleon returned to France and received a hero’s welcome!
Napoleon’s Modernization of the French Army---His “Scarecrow Army” • None of the French army had real uniforms. • Most of the soldiers had either tied rags around their feet or wore home-made flip flops made from plaited straw. • They had not been paid for months and had not eaten in days. • When Napoleon was put in charge of the army, he spent most of his money in the first few days. • He bought 18000 pairs of boots and enough corn meal to make three months worth of bread if the soldiers mixed their flours with ground chestnuts. • Their weapons---the old-fashioned muskets were almost useless. • A soldier might be able to fire two rounds a minute if he was a crack shot. • And after 20 minutes, he would have to stop in the midst of battle to clean his musket. • Because of this, Napoleon would turn to other military strategies to make them more effective.
Napoleon’s New Military Strategies • He attacked the enemy before they had a chance to get ready.. • He attacked anywhere…not just on flat ground. • He attacked from any direction---from the front, the sides, and the back. • He attacked where the enemy looked the weakest…war was not a gentleman’s act. • He moved his troops incredibly quickly---attacking, winning, marching on again, then attacking again. • He insisted on discipline in his army and did his best to stop looting. • He demanded and got sole command of his army.
Napoleon’s Innovative Military Tactics • Reconnaissance • Find gaps with skirmishers. • Concentrate artillery fire on the gaps. • Weight “main effort” • Pour exploitation force through the gap. • Reinforce success, not failure • Pursue with mobile forces. • Strategic offense and tactical defense. • Sought to do more than just attrite the enemy.
Napoleon as Military Reformer • In 1800 Napoleon formally adopted the corps d’armee system • The corps consisted of several divisions, elements of all arms, and a small staff • They were highly mobile, flexible, and able to operate independently
Napoleon’s Innovative Military Tactics: Corps D’Armee • Main tactical organization • Capable of independent maneuver/battle • Infantry, artillery, cavalry • Make contact, then hold on until reinforced. • Heavy cavalry “corps” as Army reserve. • Held for commitment at the decisive point. • New methods for logistical support enabled army to move more quickly with greater security.
Additional Reforms • By 1805 Napoleon’s Grand Army had seven corps that could operate independently or be grouped together to form ad hoc field armies • Napoleon organized his cavalry into heavy, light, and line units which proved especially skilled in the pursuit • He employed artillery with infantry divisions and cavalry brigades as well as maintaining an artillery reserve for the army • The end result as a more uniform and flexible structure designed for offensive operations
Napoleonic Soldiers • Napoleon’s soldiers were different from those in other European armies • They were largely combat veterans that seldom saw garrison duty • New recruits spent little time in training camps, instead learning by mingling with the veterans • Napoleon prized eagerness and spirit over education • Of Napoleon’s seven corps commanders in 1805, only two were over 40 • The ability to march long distances was essential
The Other Armies • The other European armies, most notably the Austrians, had made few improvements • The highest positions were reserved for members of the emperor’s family • Most officers received direct appointments or transferred from foreign armies • Appointment of officers was the sole prerogative of regimental colonels
Influences of Napoleonic Warfare • Revolutionary ideology marked a rejection of limited war in favor of total war • Armies got bigger in order to achieve the goals of destroying enemies, overthrowing governments, and annexing territory • The levee en masse mobilized every aspect of the country
Influences of Napoleonic Warfare • The quality of soldiers and officers improved • Citizen-soldiers were motivated by patriotism • Officers corps were opened up to men of talent
Influences of Napoleonic Warfare • The techniques of fighting changed • New emphasis on speed and mobility • Commanders subdivided armies to facilitate movement, drawing supplies, and flexibility • Tactics were simplified and weapons, especially artillery, were improved
Influences of Napoleonic Warfare • Helped Mahan formulate his theories on sea power • Saw the Navy’s economic strangulation of France by blockade as the key to Britain’s defeat of Napoleon • “It was not by attempting great military operations on land, but by controlling the sea, and through the sea the world outside Europe,” that the British “ensured the triumph of their country.”
Influences of Napoleonic Warfare • Problems • Some areas and conditions did not support Napoleon’s desire to live off the land • Mounting casualties among veterans compelled an increased reliance on poorly trained and less motivated conscripts and foreigners • Guerrilla warfare did not facilitate Napoleon’s desire for decisive victory • Napoleon’s enemies began partially implementing his reforms • The British had a sea power advantage
Influences of Napoleonic Warfare • Problems • Napoleon had his own limitations • Failed to comprehend the new situations in Spain or Russia • Overconfident and power-hungry • Unwilling to compromise at the peak of his power in 1809 or before in order to achieve a comfortable peace • A great campaigner, but not so skilled at grand strategy or foreign policy
Decision to Conquer the World • Before becoming emperor, Napoleon had fought wars to defend France against its European enemies. • But in 1804, his intentions changed. • Napoleon explained: “I wanted to rule the world, and in order to do this I needed unlimited power.”
Britain • Island nation off the coast of France---divided by the English Channel at the widest point of 20 miles • Half the size of France • 1/3 the size of France’s population • Army only 250,000 in comparison to the French army of 1.5 million • Hoping to conquer Britain, Napoleon assembled a 150,000 man invasion called the Army of England • He built a large fleet of barges that would carry his Army of England across the English Channel • But Britain decided to strike first and declared war on Napoleon and France in 1803
Britain • The powerful British navy took up positions along the coast of France and formed a blockade to keep French ships safely in port • By the spring of 1805, Britain had persuaded Austria and Russia to join in a new coalition against France. • But Napoleon refused to back down and he drew Spain into an alliance.
SeaPower 1805: France Britain Trafalgar(Lord Nelson: Fr. Navy lost!) Napoleon’s Major Military Campaigns
Battle of Trafalgar: Causes • 1803: Peace of Amiens between Britain and France broke down • For nearly two years, Britain was on the defensive waiting for France to make the first move. • 1804: Spain allied with France, giving Napoleon the ships he needed to challenge Britain.
Trafalgar(British Naval Superiority) • In the Napoleonic era, the British navy dominated the sea while the French army dominated the European continent • The British naval superiority lay in its fleet greater aggressiveness and skill • In 1804 Napoleon developed a plan to draw the British fleet away from the English Channel where it blocked a French invasion
Britain and the Battle of Trafalgar • Napoleon order French warships to the coast of Spain where reinforcements waited • The combined Franco-Spanish fleet would pretend to sail to the British colonies in the Caribbean. • When the British pursued them, the ships would secretly double back to support an invasion of Britain.
Britain and the Battle of Trafalgar • Napoleon’s admirals protested this plan, because the knew the winds would keep the French fleet from being able to elude the British navy, but Napoleon ignored them. • On October 21, the British navy caught up with the Franco-Spanish fleet near Spain’s Cape Trafalgar in the Mediterranean Sea. • British Admiral Nelson sent this message to his men: “England expects that every man will do his duty.” This later becomes the motto of the British navy. • Within a few hours, half of Napoleon’s ships were sunk and the rest in full retreat. • The French navy never recovered from its defeat at Trafalgar. • Napoleon was forced to scrap his plan to invade Britain once and for all.
Trafalgar (British Naval Superiority) • Napoleon had his fleet sail for the West Indies which would cause the British to divert ships from the Channel to meet this new threat • The plan failed and instead Napoleon ordered Admiral Pierre de Villeneuve to “dominate” the coast of southern Spain • British Admiral Horatio Nelson and Villeneuve then met off Cape Trafalgar on the southern tip of the Spanish coast on Oct 20, 1805
Events of Battle of Trafalgar • Napoleon’s Franco-Spanish fleet battled in Toulon and broke out into the Atlantic in early 1805 • The British, led by Admiral Nelson, were waiting and chased them all the way to the West Indies. • By late 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet found shelter at Cadiz and was positioned to attack British trading ships or Britain itself.