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The Thermidorian Reaction • Coup against Robespierre (radical gov.) • 9 Thermidor, Year II (July 27, 1794) • Limited Democracy • The Directory • Weaknesses led to Napoleon • Crushed Jacobin (radical) uprising
The “Thermidorian Reaction” Closed the Jacobin Clubs. Why? Churches were reopened. Why? • 1795 freedom of worship for all No Economic restrictions – laissez-faire August, 1795 new Constitution 2 Houses Conservative republicanism Terror = danger
The Directory Revolution over? Law and order restored? New Era: “White” Terror -- the Counter-Revolution, lashing out at Jacobins (radicals) Other things don’t change: Inflation continues Rule by rich bourgeois And . . . . Add to this: Self-indulgence frivolous culture (backlash against virtue and morality of Robespierre) Political corruption
The Government Structure of the New Directory 5-man executive committee (oligarchy) Goal: Avoid a dictatorship Council of 500 initiates legislation. Council of Elders [250 members], votes. Must be married or widowed males over 40 years of age. Why that distinction?
Political Corruption of the Directory • Police state • Perpetual state of war = unquestioning loyalty to state • Army led by corrupt leaders • Army used to suppress rebellion • Napoleon gains power
Political Instability: Again 1795-1796 April, 1795 Inflation; bread riots. May 20, 1795 Revolt . Women demand bread • Military suppressed rebellions May, 1796 • Conspiracy of Equals” • Workers vs. the bourgeoisie regime • Leaders caught, executed in 1797
Manifesto of the “Conspiracy of Equals” • People of France! The French Revolution was nothing but a precursor of another revolution, one that will be bigger, more solemn, and which will be the last . . . We declare that we can no longer put up with the fact that the great majority work and sweat for the smallest of minorities . . . Since all have the same faculties and the same needs, let there then be for them but one education, but one food. They are satisfied with one sun and one air for all: why then would the same portion and the same quality of food not suffice for each of them?
Meanwhile . . . Around Europe • 1st and 2nd Coalitions • Attempts by Europe to destroy gains made by revolutionaries • Petty battles, land grabs • Napoleon and Egypt
18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799) Coup d’état by Napoleon. Overthrows Directory, replaces it with a Consulate Abbe Sieyès: “Confidence from below; authority from above.”
Birth and Upbringing • 1769, Corsica • New French territory • Corsica = backward, unsophisticated • Minor Italian nobility • Good connections • Military school • Officer at 16
Napoleon’s Rise to Power • Early military career • Italian campaigns • 1796-97: conquered most of N. Italy for France • In Italy: Suppressed religious orders, ended serfdom, limited privilege for nobles
Napoleon’s Rise to Power • Egyptian Campaign (Why would England and France both want control of Egypt?) • 1798: defeated by Horatio Nelson • Napoleon returns to France as a hero
The Rosetta Stone Discovered by a French army engineer in 1789. When the French lost to the British, it ended up in London.
Napoleon as “First Consul” Napoleon coup d’etat on Nov. 9, 1799 Proclaimed himself First Consul and created a new Senate 1802: Consul for Life 1804: Emperor
Where does Napoleon fit into this new government? • Master puppeteer, pulling all the strings. • Manipulated people and data to get the results he wanted. “Ends justify the means.” • As power becomes more absolute, more and more people fear him. • Eventually, he “accepts” the role of Emperor from the “people”
Banque de France, 1800 National bank Restored confidence after the financial upheavals of revolution Napoleon was a major shareholder
Concordat of 1801 Heal division between France and the Catholic Church Returned some church property, reinstated clergy Napoleon needed clergical support Church/State balance favors the State
Concordat of 1801 Napoleon: “Catholicism is the religion of the great majority of the French, but not the official state religion” Religious “freedom” for Jews and Protestants (they own businesses and pay taxes) The Church gave up all claims to Church lands that were confiscated after 1790. Sabbath was re-established, but as a "festival”
Lycee System of Education Established 1801 – Reform movement Originally limited, but N. opens to many more Trained future bureaucrats – loyal to Napoleon
Legion of Honor, 1802 “Honor and Fatherland” Old Royal Orders abolished Republican reward to commend civilians and soldiers. First modern award of merit.
Code Napoleon: 1804 • Purpose: reform legal code to reflect principles of French Revolution • Create one, uniform code for France • Divides civil law into • Personal status • Property • Acquisition of property
Influence of the Napoleonic Code Swept away feudalism Modernizing
Haitian Independence 1792-1804 Toussaint L’Ouverture
Louisiana Purchase, 1803 $15,000,000
Louisiana Purchase • Louisiana territory intended to be the granary for Caribbean territories and a place to sell sugar (main crop of Caribbean) • 1800: Great Britain gains French territory • Efforts to regain Santo Domingo (Haiti) failed • War in Europe was costly • Must sell Louisiana
The Coronation of 1804 By David 1806
The “Empire” Style Madame Recamier by David, 1808
Neo-Classical Architecture Napoleon’s Tomb
Statue of Napoleon in the Roman style Napoleon’s Tomb
SeaPower France Britain French Navy lost Napoleon’s Major Military Campaigns 1805: Trafalger
Napoleon’s Major Military Campaigns: 1805 -Danube-Italy Britain Austria Russia France Battle of AUSTERLITZ:France defeated Austria and Russia. Crowned “King of Italy” on May 6, 1805
“Crossing the Alps” 1805 Paul Delaroche A more realistic portrayal of the invasion of Austria