Judges • Sources used in this PowerPoint: • Reading the Old Testament • Lawrence Boadt, Paulist Press 1984 • New American Catholic Bible • Personal Study Edition, Oxford University Press 1995 • Collegeville Bible Commentary • Liturgical Press 1989
1. Background Leading into Judges a. Joshua succeeds Moses. b. Leads Israelites into Canaan to conquer land promised by G-d c. Polytheistic Canaanites already there!
1. Background Leading into Judges d. Israelites adopt customs and idol worship of pagan neighbors. e. Israelites have no leadership except JUDGES until King Saul in 1000 BCE.
2. Age of the Judges a. 1200-1000 BCE b. Fills in transition period between Conquest of the Land and beginning of United Monarchy
2. Age of the Judges c. Main problem stated many times in Book of Judges:
2. Age of the Judges d. “In those days Israel had no King; everyone did what he thought best.” Judges 17:16; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25
3. Cycle of Sin-Redemption Cycle starts over again! d. G-d sends DELIVERANCE. (a Judge to rescue & restore peace). c. Israel REPENTS. (Cries to G-d for help). a. Israel SINS. (Worships other gods). b. Israel is PUNISHED. (Calamity: Defeated by enemies).
4.The Book of Judges a. Author: unknown Deuteronomist (D) historian b. 1200-1000 BCE: covers from death of Joshua to rise of Samuel, prophet/judge
4. The Book of Judges c. NOT chronological d. Short accounts of human leaders called JUDGES between settlement of Canaan and United Monarchy
5. Themes in Book of Judges a.“Glorify YHWH who gives Israel victories and land.” ROT 198
5. Themes in Book of Judges b. “Sin leads to punishment, but repentance brings forgiveness and deliverance.” CBC 249
5. Themes in Book of Judges c. “G-d acts decisively on behalf of those who are politically oppressed” New American Bible, Oxford U Press p109RG Deborah
5. Themes in Book of Judges d. “Negative experiences are made lessons for the future” Catholic Bible Oxford University Press p109RG Jephthah killing his daughter
5. Themes in Book of Judges e.“Why G-d permitted Israel to change its system of government to monarchy” Catholic Bible, Oxford University Press p102RG To Monarchy From JUDGES
6. Who were the Judges? a. Men AND women b. Heroic, yet flawed c. Settled tribal disputes d. Led military defense against invaders
6. Who were the Judges? e. Raised up by the SPIRIT of the Lord = charismatic f. Given exceptional POWER g. Challenged Israel: remain faithful to G-d
7. Israel’s Temptations a. Baals: Canaanite god(s) of earth and fertility which took on many forms
7. Israel’s Temptations b. Asherah: Canaanite goddess of fertility
8. Judges: Minor and Major a. Six Minor Judges (1) Shamgar (5) Elon (2) Tola (6) Abdon (3) Jair (4) Ibzan
8. Judges: Minor and Major b. Six Major Judges (1) Othniel First? “Lion of G-d”?
8. Judges: Minor and Major b. Six Major Judges (2) Ehud Kills Moabite King Eglon Judges 3:12-30
8. Judges: Minor and Major b. Six Major Judges (3) Deborah with Barak With aid of Jael, kills Sisera, Canaanite general Judges 4:1-24
8. Judges: Minor and Major b. Six Major Judges (4) Gideon Angel of the Lord commands Gideon to fight Midianites Judges 6:11f
8. Judges: Minor and Major b. Six Major Judges (5) Jephthah Made vow to the Lord if he defeated Ammonites Judges 11:29f
8. Judges: Minor and Major b. Six Major Judges (6) Samson Most heroic ,yet flawed judge Judges 14, 15, 16