Chapter 13 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

thom
chapter 13 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 13 PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 24
Download Presentation
Chapter 13
160 Views
Download Presentation

Chapter 13

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 13 Premodern Humans

  2. The Pleistocene • The Pleistocene, often called the Ice Age, was marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations. • Middle Pleistocene (780,000– 25,000 y.a.) • Upper Pleistocene (125,000–10,000 y.a.)

  3. Changing Pleistocene Environments in Africa

  4. Changing Pleistocene Environments in Eurasia

  5. Homo heidelbergensis • Europe and Africa • 800,000-300,000 YA • Regional variations • Cranial capacity 1206 cm3 • Intermediate between H. erectus and H. sapiens • Acheulean tools • China • Dali and Jinnishuan

  6. Homo heidelbergensis skull from Zambia • The Kabwe (Broken Hill) Homo heidelbergensis skull from Zambia. • Note the very heavy supraorbital torus.

  7. Earliest Evidence of Homo Heidelbergensis in Africa • Bodo cranium, the earliest evidence of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.

  8. Steinheim Cranium • Steinheim cranium, a representative of H. heidelbergensis from Germany.

  9. Crania from China • (a) Dali skull and (b) Jinniushan skull, both from China. • These two crania are considered by some to be Asian representatives of Homo heidelbergensis.

  10. Fossil Discoveries of Middle Pleistocene Premodern Hominids.

  11. Fossil Discoveries of Middle Pleistocene Premodern Hominids.

  12. Time line ofMiddle Pleistocene hominids.

  13. The Levallois Technique

  14. Neanderthals • Europe and Southwest Asia • Late Pleistocene • 130,000 – 28,000 YA • Over 400 individuals found • Features • Larger boned, short, stocky • Bipedal • Adapted to cold climate • Occipital bun • Cranial capacity – 1200-1750 cm3 (Avg. 1450 cm3)

  15. Morphology and Variation in Neandertal Crania

  16. Fossil Discoveries of Neandertals

  17. Krapina • (a) Lateral view showing characteristic Neandertal traits. • (b) Three quarters view.

  18. Excavation of the Tabun Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel

  19. Shanidar 1 • Among the individuals buried at Shanidar cave is the skeleton of a one-armed, partially blind, crippled man. • He could not have hunted or gathered food on his own. • Some believe his survival is proof of Neandertal compassion and humanity

  20. Fate of the Neanderthals • Outcompeted • Hunting hypothesis • Climate hypothesis • Did they interbreed with AMH?

  21. Culture of Neandertals • Mousterian industry • Clothing • Subsistence • Fire • Shelter • Intentional burials • Language • Social Support Networks

  22. Phylogeny of genus Homo

  23. Phylogeny of genus Homo

  24. Three Major Evolutionary Transitions • Transition from early Homo to H. erectus. Geographically limited to Africa and occurred rapidly. • Transition of H. erectus grading into early H. sapiens. Not geographically limited, but occurred slowly and unevenly. • Transition from Archaic H. sapiens to anatomically modern H. sapiens.