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A Primer for Young Worker Safety and Health Training. Training Module 2 and 3. Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood Capacity Building Grant: #SH-20848SHO. Acknowledgement of Sources. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/talkingsafety/. Introduction to OSHA.

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a primer for young worker safety and health training

A Primer for Young Worker Safety and Health Training

Training Module 2 and 3

Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood Capacity Building Grant: #SH-20848SHO

acknowledgement of sources
Acknowledgement of Sources


Introduction to OSHA


Work Safe, Work Smart: Health and Safety Awareness for Working Teens curriculum.

University of Washington: Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences. Washington State Dept. of Labor and Industries.

OSHA’s 11 – An OSHA 10 Hour General Industry Curriculum: University of Washington: Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences.

Washington State Dept. of Labor and Industries.

course agenda
Course Agenda
  • Lesson 1: Young Worker Injuries and Illnesses
  • Lesson 2: Identification of workplace hazards (including chemical, biological, safety, and other health hazards)
  • Lesson 3: Ways to reduce young worker injuries and illnesses
    • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Lesson 4: Young worker rights and responsibilities- An overview of Young Worker Labor Laws
tying it all together
Tying it All Together
  • The Puzzle piece represents an activity that participants can do individually or as a group
  • The Movie reel represents ways to integrate media into training
  • The Microphone represents ways to encourage participation
young worker injuries and illnesses

Young Worker Injuries and Illnesses

Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood Capacity Building Grant: #SH-20848SHO

occupational injuries and deaths among young workers
Occupational Injuries and Deaths Among Young Workers^
  • Younger workers (defined as those aged 15-24 years):
    • Represent 14% of the U.S. labor force
    • Overrepresented in dangerous jobs: construction, transportation, agriculture, and mining.
    • 2009: there were 343 fatalities among this group
  • Workers under 25 years old were twice as likely to end up in the emergency room when compared to those aged 25 and older

^Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. April 23, 2010, Vol. 59, No. 15.

occupational injuries and illnesses
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

Rates of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses Treated in Emergency Departments by Age Group, United States, 2006*

*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Charts on Young Worker Employment, Injuries and Illness

teen specific work injury statistics
Teen Specific Work Injury Statistics
  • Many youth are injured on the job in the US:
    • 158,000 <18 year-olds injured/year
    • 52,600 <18 year-olds to the ER for work injuries
    • 38 <18 year-olds die each year
  • Young workers are injured at a higher rate than adult workers.
sharing work related experiences
Sharing Work Related Experiences
  • How many of you have ever had a job?
  • Where did you work?
  • What did you do?
  • Have you ever been hurt at work, or do you know someone who was?
  • Have you ever been uncomfortable with a task you’ve been asked to do at work?
experiences of injured young workers
Experiences of Injured Young Workers
  • Lost Youth video/DVD. Video can be viewed at: http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/default.asp , purchased from the Worksafe BC website, or accessed on www.youtube.com(in search box enter: lost youth worksafebc)
  • NIOSH- Talking Safety Teen Worker Video :

Teen Workers: Real Jobs, Real Risks http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/talkingsafety/video.html

injury report babysitting
Injury Report: Babysitting
  • 15 year-old babysitter
  • Watching 3 month-old and 5 year-old at home
  • Heating water for bottle on stove
  • Dish towel catches fire
  • In panic, babysitter is unable to locate fire extinguisher
  • Evacuates house with children and calls 911
  • House is engulfed and all treated for smoke inhalation
injury report concert
Injury Report: Concert
  • 18 year-old employee
  • Working at a summer music amphitheater
  • Responsible for working on the security team
  • Stampede ensued when the gate is cracked open
  • Employee suffers broken bones and nightmares after being trampled


injury report housekeeping
Injury Report: Housekeeping

15 year-old team member

Picking up trash and emptying trash bin in the restroom

Improperly disposed of diabetic needle sticks team member in the hand

Several months later team member tests positive for HIV


injury report masonry apprentice
Injury Report: Masonry Apprentice

20 year-old brick laying apprentice

Carrying a bucket of mortar on shoulder

While setting the bucket down mortar splashed up into the apprentice’s face and eyes

The mortar burned the apprentice’s eyes and had started to setup

The patients’ eye had to be scraped

Resulting in hospital stays, operations, and potential permanent loss of vision in one or both eyes


injury report lifeguard
Injury Report: Lifeguard
  • 17 year-old lifeguard at neighborhood pool
  • Required to sit in life guard stand for 2 hour stretches
  • Temperature outside is 95 degrees and sunny
  • During the last rain storm the umbrella was blown away
  • One lifeguard called in sick and pool is filled to capacity
  • Life guard passes out and is rushed to the hospital
  • Diagnosed with heat stroke


injury report childcare
Injury Report: Childcare
  • 16 year-old assistant at childcare center
  • Mixing bleach and water to disinfect toys and tabletops
  • Accidentally mixed bleach with what she thought it was water
  • Chlorine gas was released requiring the classroom to be evacuated
  • Assistant and 2 children treated for respiratory irritation
injury report restaurant
Injury Report: Restaurant
  • 17 year-old dishwasher at restaurant
  • Responsible for operating dishwasher conveyor-belt system
  • Sleeve was caught in conveyor belt during loading and arm was pulled into machine
  • Employee suffered severe burns to his arm after contacting the dish washer water
injury report convenience store
Injury Report: Convenience Store
  • 18 year-old clerk at quick-service mart
  • Closing up store at night; emptying register
  • One other employee was taking out trash in back of store
  • Gunman entered and demanded money and lottery tickets
  • Clerk was not physically harmed, but unable to return to work
injury report laboratory safety
Injury Report: Laboratory Safety
  • 19 year-old student is employed as laboratory assistant for college chemistry class
  • Preparing chemical materials a class on the laboratory workbench
  • Student assumed the chemical in container was the material he needed and combined it with another chemical
  • A violent chemical reaction occurred and sprayed up onto face and neck of student
  • The safety drench shower did not work when he pulled the lever
  • Student suffered permanent tissue damage to face and eyes
injury and illness reporting
Injury and Illness Reporting
  • OSHA 300 log and 301

(Injuries and Illness Incident Report)

  • Questions you might be asked
    • What time did you start work?
    • What time did the event occur?
    • What were you doing just before the event occurred?
    • In your own words, tell us what happened?
    • What was the injury or illness?
    • What object or substance directly harmed you?


Did the employee experience

an injury or illness?



Is the injury or illness

work related?


Update the previously

recorded injury or

illness if necessary.

Is the injury or illness

a new case?



Does the injury or illness meet the

general recording criteria or the

application to specific cases?



Do not need to record

the injury or illness.


the injury or illness.

identification of job hazards

Identification of Job Hazards

Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood Capacity Building Grant: #SH-20848SHO

what is a job hazard
What is a Job Hazard?

A job hazard is anything at work that can hurt you, either physically or mentally.

the effects of job hazards
The Effects of Job Hazards

Temporary Effects

Permanent Effects

the effects of job hazards1
The Effects of Job Hazards

Immediate Effects

Delayed Effects

hazard categories1
Hazard Categories
  • Safety hazards: can cause immediate accidents and injuries. (Examples: knives, hot grease, etc.)
  • Chemical hazards: are gases, vapors, liquids, or dusts that can harm your body. (Examples: cleaning products or pesticides.) Discuss how chemicals can get into the body.
  • Biological hazards: are living things that can cause sickness or disease. (Examples: bacteria, viruses, or insects.)
hazard categories2
Hazard Categories
  • Other health hazards: are harmful things, not in other categories, that can injure you or make you sick. They are sometimes less obvious because they may not cause health problems right away. (Examples: noise, radiation, repetitive movements, heat, cold)
  • “Pressure Cooker or Unspoken” hazards:
    • unsafe equipment or procedures
    • emergency situations: fires, explosions, severe injury, violence
    • stressful conditions
    • inadequate training
    • inadequate supervision
    • deadlines, production requirements, etc.
getting a safe start to identifying hazards
Getting a Safe Start to Identifying Hazards
  • Ask your supervisor for help
  • Get Training on the chemicals or equipment you will use
  • Check the label of the products you will use
  • Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the chemicals or products being used
  • Look online for safety and health information-
    • See the resource list provided in the handout packet
  • Call a resource agency like OSHA for more help
material safety data sheets
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • How is this chemical used?
  • What are the possible routes of entry?
  • What are the potential immediate effects of exposure to this chemical?
  • What are the potential delayed effects of exposure to this chemical?
  • What are the potential temporary or permanent effects of exposure to this chemical?
  • What concerns do you have, if any about this product?

Questions to ask yourself:

material safety data sheets1
Material Safety Data Sheets
  • What is the percentage of ammonia in this product? What is the other ingredient in this product?
  • Is ammonia a corrosive? What is a corrosive?
  • What happens if you get ammonia in your eye?
  • What should you do if you accidentally swallow ammonia?
  • What would happen to your body if you accidentally ingested ammonia?
  • What kind of protection should you wear on your body to protect yourself?


about noise and hearing loss prevention
About Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention
  • How Loud is too loud?
    • Exposure to noise at 85dbA for 8 hours a day will cause permanent hearing loss
    • The amount of time of exposure to sounds determines the potential for hearing loss.
exposure to noise
Exposure To Noise

Demonstration of Noise Induced Hearing Loss

NIOSH Sound Level Meter



  • Hazards can cause:
    • Temporary or permanent injury or illness.
    • Effects that may show up right away or not until later in life.
  • Recognizing Hazards:
    • May change daily,
    • May be things that you cannot touch, see, smell, or hear,
    • And may be situations that occur.
  • It is important for workers to always be aware of how to assess a workplace for potential hazards.
hazards in the workplace advanced workshop session
Hazards in the Workplace:Advanced Workshop Session

Understanding Emergency Preparedness

promoting understanding emergency preparedness
Promoting Understanding: Emergency Preparedness

Story A: Grease Fire in Restaurant Burns Employee

A fire destroyed part of Hooper’s Restaurant late Thursday night, and critically injured two employees. The fire was caused when a frying pan, filled with oil heating up on the stove, was left unattended while the fry cook went to get something out of the walk-in freezer. The fire rapidly spread to dishcloths hanging on a towel rack over the stove. Another employee discovered the fire and attempted to put out the fire by pouring water on the stove. This caused the burning grease to splatter his face, arms, and chest. Another co-worker, hearing cries for help, called 911 and then ran out into the dining room and yelled for everyone to leave the restaurant immediately. Emergency services arrived and went to work extinguishing the blaze and treating the burned employee.

Image source: http://tell.fll.purdue.edu/JapanProj/FLClipart/Medical/burn.gif

promoting understanding emergency preparedness1
Promoting Understanding :Emergency Preparedness

Story B: Robber Threatens Young Employee With Gun: A 16 year-old employee of a local convenience store was held up at gunpoint late Tuesday night by a robber wearing a hoodie and dark sunglasses. The employee was working alone at the front counter and was in the process of closing the store for the evening. The robber reportedly demanded the employee empty the cash register into a duffel bag, then get down on the floor behind the counter and remain on the floor for 15 minutes. The robber then exited the store. Although the young employee was not physically injured, she was very shaken up by the incident.

promoting understanding emergency preparedness2
Promoting Understanding:Emergency Preparedness

Story C: Young Construction Worker Falls From Ladder:An 18 year-old house painter, who was painting the second story of a house, fell off his ladder yesterday, breaking both legs. He also suffered severe cuts when he caught his arm on a metal fence during the fall. Co-workers rushed to assist him and called for an ambulance. While waiting for the ambulance, the co-workers carried the employee to the front lawn and then applied pressure to his open wound to stop the bleeding.

finding solutions

Finding Solutions

Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood Capacity Building Grant: #SH-20848SHO

Controlling & Preventing Hazards on the Job

preventing injuries illnesses
Preventing Injuries & Illnesses

In most cases, the best preventions require a change in the workplace – not a change in worker behavior.

prevention strategies
Prevention Strategies

Remove the Hazard or

Build a Barrier

Improve Work Policies & Procedures

Use Protective Clothing & Equipment

prevention strategies1
Prevention Strategies

Employer Responsibility

  • Remove the hazard
  • Change equipment to eliminate the hazard
  • Create a physical barrier between the hazard and a worker

Remove the Hazard or

Build a Barrier

Improve Work Policies & Procedures

Use Protective Clothing & Equipment

prevention strategies2
Prevention Strategies

Employer Responsibility

  • Establish rules and procedures
  • Enforce rules and procedures
  • Train workers
  • Provide information on hazards and safety rules

Remove the Hazard or

Build a Barrier

Improve Work Policies & Procedures

Use Protective Clothing & Equipment

prevention strategies3
Prevention Strategies

Employer Responsibility

  • Provide protective clothing and equipment
  • Train on its use

Employee Responsibility

  • Wear and use the clothing and equipment correctly and consistently

Remove the Hazard or

Build a Barrier

Improve Work Policies & Procedures

Use Protective Clothing & Equipment

hazard heavy boxes
Hazard: Heavy Boxes

Move heavy boxes with forklift

Remove the Hazard or

Build a Barrier

Replace heavy boxes with smaller, lighter boxes

Limit the amount of weight a worker is allowed to carry

Improve Work Policies & Procedures

Train workers to carry heavy objects correctly

Use Protective Clothing & Equipment

Non-slip gloves

personal protective equipment

Personal Protective Equipment

Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood Capacity Building Grant: #SH-20848SHO

Your Last Line of Defense

an overview of personal protective equipment
An Overview Of Personal Protective Equipment
  • The Purpose of PPE
  • Types of PPE
  • PPE Zones
  • PPE Hazard Assessments
  • PPE Shopping
why wear ppe
Why wear PPE?
  • Barrier against workplace hazards
    • Prevent over exposure
  • To prevent take home contamination
    • Prevent exposure to others outside of the work environment
routes of exposure
Routes of Exposure





types of ppe
Types of PPE







ppe zones
PPE Zones



Full Body




let s go shopping for ppe
Let’s go Shopping for PPE

Using Your Completed PPE Hazard Assessments select the appropriate PPE from the Table

  • The three main ways to control workplace hazards are:
    • Remove the hazards/build barrier
    • Improve workplace policies or procedures
    • Use protective clothing or equipment
  • Although employers are responsible for providing a hazard-free work environment, we all have a responsibility to speak up and take action when we see a hazard or unsafe act.
finding your voice

Finding Your Voice

Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood Capacity Building Grant: #SH-20848SHO

Understanding Your Rights and Responsibilities


Your Right to a…

The creation of OSHA provided workers the right to a safe and healthful workplace.

Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act states: “Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees."

www.osha.gov or call: 1-800-321-OSHA

what rights do all employees have under osha
What Rights Do All Employees Have Under OSHA?
  • You have the right to:
    • A safe and healthful workplace
    • Know about hazardous chemicals
    • Information about injuries and illnesses in your workplace
    • Complain or request hazard correction from employer
    • Training
    • Hazard exposure and medical records
    • File a complaint with OSHA
    • Participate in an OSHA inspection
    • Be free from retaliation for exercising safety and health rights
why are there child labor laws
Why are there Child Labor Laws?


  • Children worked in mines, factories, etc.
  • 12-14 hour days, 6 days/week
  • $1/week wage
  • Did not go to school
  • Often lost limbs or killed by machinery

What laws could have prevented this?

youth rules
Youth Rules!
  • Child Labor Laws are designed to protect teens under 18 from:
    • Working long or late hours
    • From doing certain dangerous tasks on the job
  • Federal regulations updated on July 19, 2010
  • Where to go for more information:
    • Youth Rules! Website : http://youthrules.dol.gov/
    • Wage and Hour Division of Department of Labor : http://www.dol.gov/whd/
know your rights
Know Your Rights
  • Federal and state labor laws:
    • Set minimum age for some tasks
    • Protect teens from working too long, too late or too early
  • OSHA says every employer must provide:
    • A safe workplace
    • Safety training on certain hazards
    • Safety equipment
  • By law, your employer is not allowed to fire or punish you for reporting a safety problem.
handling workplace safety problems
Handling Workplace Safety Problems

Steps in Problem Solving:

  • Define the problem
  • Get advice
  • Choose your goals
  • Know your rights
  • Decide the best way to talk to the supervisor
  • If necessary, contact an outside agency for help.
role play scenarios
Role-Play Scenarios
  • Housekeeping
  • Masonry Apprentice
  • Concert
  • Lifeguard
  • Childcare
  • Restaurant
  • Convenience Store
  • Laboratory
  • Babysitting

Choose Your Topic!

workplace attitudes
Workplace Attitudes
  • Even if an employer does everything they can to prevent work injuries and illnesses, people still become injured while working. Why do you think that is?
  • Why might a person work around hazards without setting up prevention measures?
  • People sometimes take risks with things they know are hazards. Can you name some things you or other people do, even though they may be risky?

Source: Work Safe, Work Smart curriculum. Lesson 3.

workplace attitudes1
Workplace Attitudes
  • Can you name some things you or other people would not do, because they are too risky?
  • How do you decide how much of a risk you are willing to take? How do you know where to draw the line?

Source: Work Safe, Work Smart curriculum. Lesson 3.

benefits vs costs
Benefits vs. Costs
  • Each of us has to weigh the costs and benefits of being safe or taking a risk. We have to decide what balance between these two things is acceptable to us.
  • Example:
    • Always require two people to be in store during close-up and cash-out

Source: Work Safe, Work Smart curriculum. Lesson 3.

benefits vs costs1
Benefits vs. Costs
  • Benefits
  • Extra eyes and ears to keep lookout for strange activity
  • Feel more secure
  • Costs
  • More $ cost to the employer
  • Two jobs can’t be done at once (takes more time to close-up)
taking action
Taking Action
  • What can you do if you spot a hazard or feel unsafe?
  • Why would you speak up or not?
  • Who to contact if there are problems that still exist?
  • When should I take action or seek outside help?
  • Where to go for more information?
building resources
Building Resources
  • Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety: Young Worker Zone http://www.ccohs.ca/youngworkers/
  • Work Safe British Columbia: Young Workers at Risk http://www2.worksafebc.com/Topics/YoungWorker/Home.asp
  • International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labourhttp://www.ilo.org/ipec/areas/Safeworkforyouth/lang--en/index.htm
  • Youth@Work (Safe, fair, productive young working lives) presented by the Government of South Australia http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/youth/
  • WorkSafe: Saskatchewan (Canada) http://www.worksafesask.ca/Youth

International Resources

building resources1
Building Resources
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) www.osha.gov and http://www.youth2work.gov/
  • National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/youth/
  • Youngworkers.org http://www.youngworkers.org/home.htm *The California Resource Network for Young Workers’ Health and Safety and home of The National Young Worker Safety Resource Center
  • United States Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division (WHD) Youth Rules! http://www.youthrules.dol.gov/teens/default.htm
  • National Children’s Center for Rural Agricultural Health and Safety http://www.marshfieldclinic.org/nccrahs/
  • Gulf Coast Safety Institute www.com.edu/gcsi

National Resources

building resources2
Building Resources
  • Georgia Department of Education http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/http://www.gadoe.org/
  • Georgia Department of Education: Career, Technology and Agricultural Education http://www.gadoe.org/ci_cta.aspx
  • SkillsUSAwww.skillsusageorgia.org and www.skillsusa.org
  • Georgia Technology Student Association www.gatsa.org
  • Georgia Engineering and Technology Education Association www.getea.org
  • Georgia Health Occupations Students of America www.georgiahosa.orgConstruction Education Foundation of Georgia www.cefga.org
  • Trade and Industrial Educators of Georgia http://tiega.org/
  • MAGIC "Mentoring a Girl in Construction" , Inc. Summer Camp Program www.mentoringagirlinconstruction.com
  • Project Safe Georgia www.projectsafegeorgia.org
  • American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE)- Georgia Chapter http://georgia.asse.org/
  • Georgia Local Section- American Industrial Hygiene Association (GLS-AIHA) http://www.georgiaaiha.org/

Georgia Local Resources

for more information
For More Information
  • Email: youngworker@gtri.gatech.edu
  • Website: www.youngworker.gatech.edu
  • Twitter: @youngworker
  • Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/#!/Young.Worker.at.GTRI
  • Phone: 404-407-8089
  • Address:

Center for Young Worker Safety and Health at GTRI

260 14th Street

Atlanta, GA 30332