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Preventing Youth Delinquency Identifying School Risk & Protective Factors

Preventing Youth Delinquency Identifying School Risk & Protective Factors

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Preventing Youth Delinquency Identifying School Risk & Protective Factors

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  1. Preventing Youth DelinquencyIdentifying School Risk & Protective Factors Christine A. Christle 2004

  2. School to Prison Pipeline School Failure Suspension Dropout Delinquency

  3. The Co$t of Incarceration Penn State or The State Pen It’s your money!

  4. Life Domains Individual Family School Community Peer Relations School Weak academics Low school involvement Truancy Suspension Expulsion Dropout Risk Factors - Delinquency

  5. Weak Academics & Poverty • Exposure to print material • Low SES - 40 hrs • High SES - 1000 hrs • Vocabulary skills • Following directions

  6. fall behind academically >> difficult work >> challenging behaviors >> removal from class >> Failure Cycle • Cognitive deficits lead to poor academic performance • Poor academic performance is a strong risk factor for delinquency

  7. Weak Academics & Behavior • Low school achievement predicts delinquency • 20% of students with EBD are arrested while in school • 58% are arrested 5 years after school • 70-87% of incarcerated youth have LD or EBD

  8. School Factors3 Studies in Kentucky • 747 Elementary Schools • 161 Middle Schools • 196 High Schools

  9. Elementary School Study • Stage 1 • Correlation analysis of school characteristics & academic achievement • Stage 2 • Regression analysis • Stage 3 • Qualitative analysis of climate in 3 HPHA & 3 HPLA schools

  10. Research Questions • What specific school characteristics are related to academic achievement? • What characteristics separate HPHA schools from HPLA schools?

  11. Results Stages 1 & 2School Characteristics Related to Academic Achievement Correlation • Poverty: % of students in FRLP - 34% • Attendance rate: + 26% Regression • Together (FRLP % & ATT) 42%

  12. Results Stage 3Case Studies - HPHA vs HPLA • Smaller schools • Better building conditions • More adult/student interactions • More positive interactions • Higher staff morale & collegiality • Higher level of student task engagement • More money per student • More family involvement

  13. Suspension • Most common disciplinary consequence in schools • Disproportionately used • Ethnicity, SES, gender, academic competence • Most at Middle School level • Poor academic skill - strong predictor of school exclusion

  14. Suspension • Rates increasing • US: steady increase over last 25 years • Kentucky: 00-01 68,523 01-02 74,054 02-03 76,886 • Most are repeat offenders

  15. Middle School Study • Stage 1 • Correlation analysis of school characteristics & suspension • Stage 2 • Comparison analysis of 20 HSS & 20 LSS • Stage 3 • Qualitative analysis of climate in 4 HSS & 4 LSS

  16. Research Questions • What specific school characteristics are related to suspension rate? • What characteristics separate high-suspending schools from low-suspending schools?

  17. 20 HSS Number of board violations Dropout rate Low SES Law violations $tudent $pending 20 LSS Attendance rate Academic test scores Ethnic background C/W Results Stage 1 & 2Characteristics Differentially Related

  18. HSS and LSS Difference - Suspension 1 1 Suspension Rate -

  19. HSS and LSS Difference - Ethnicity Percent Caucasian Students

  20. HSS and LSS Difference - Poverty 1 Percent FRLP Enrollment -

  21. Administrative Leadership More support for staff Proactive discipline philosophy Teacher & Staff Behaviors More positive interactions Active teaching style Results Stage 3Case Studies - LSS vs HSS

  22. Student Behaviors More positive interactions More engagement in class Structure & Programming Better building condition More ambiance School-wide focus More school connections Results Stage 3Case Studies - LSS vs HSS

  23. Dropout • Low SES youth 2.4 X more likely to drop out • Suspended youth 3 X more likely to drop out & become delinquent • Over 80% of prison inmates are dropouts • 1/2 of heads of households on welfare are dropouts

  24. High School Study • Stage 1 • Correlation analysis of school characteristics & dropout • Stage 2 • Comparison analysis of 20 HDOS & 20 LDOS • Stage 3 • Qualitative analysis of climate in 4 HDOS & 4 LDOS

  25. Research Questions • What specific school characteristics are related to dropout rate? • What characteristics separate high-dropout schools from low-dropout schools?

  26. Enrollment FRLP % # Rule violations # Law violations Suspension rate Retention rate Expulsion rate Ethnic background Attendance rate Academic achievement scores % of students with disabilities Current StudySchool Variables

  27. Results: Pending

  28. Lessons Learned Thus Far Resilience • Meaningful Participation • Students help develop dress code, lunch menus • High Expectations • All students & staff (PRIDE program) • Caring Adult Relationships • All staff involved with students in clubs, activities

  29. BIG IDEA ! SCHOOL STAFF KNOW • Problems • Solutions ASK THEM!

  30. Dilemma How can we transform this research into practice?

  31. Thank You Christine A. Christle University of Kentucky The National Center on Education, Disability, and Juvenile Justice