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Occupational Risk Factors

Occupational Risk Factors

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Occupational Risk Factors

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  1. Occupational Risk Factors

  2. Upper Extremity • Highly Repetitive Movements • Awkward Postures • Excessive Forces • Vibration • Cold Temperatures • Gloves

  3. Risk Factors for Hand & Wrist Injuries FORCE Examples • Forceful gripping of tools • Repeated and/or awkward wrist postures • Use of vibrating tools (chainsaws, jackhammers, rotary grinders) • Use of inappropriate gloves • Highly repetitive tasks, lack of recovery time REPETITION POSTURE WORK PACE VIBRATION GLOVES

  4. Risk Factors for Shoulder/Neck FORCE POSTURE REPETITION • Examples • Overhead assembly (welders, painters, auto repair) • Sewers and cutters (repetitive shoulder flexion) • Packing (prolonged load on shoulders) • Lumber/construction (repetitive throwing of heavy loads) • Letter carriers (prolonged load on shoulders)

  5. Lower Extremity • Heavy Physical Work • Lifting and Forceful Movements • Bending and Twisting (Awkward Postures) • Whole Body Vibration (WBV) • Static Work Postures

  6. Risk Factors for Back Injuries LIFTING PUSHING CARRYING Examples • Lifting heavy or awkward shaped equipment • Carrying carpet • Moving furniture • Twisting at the waist while lifting or holding a heavy load • Reaching and lifting over your head, across a table, or out the back of a truck or car LOWERING PULLING TWISTING

  7. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries CONTACT TRAUMA POSTURE LIFTING Examples • Repetitive kneeling • Contact trauma with the floor • Contact trauma with the knee kicker • Lifting/lowering heavy or awkward shaped equipment S/T/F CLIMBING STAIRS LOWERING

  8. Non-Occupational Risk Factors • Certain Medications/Therapies • Age • Gender • Wrist Size/Wrist Structural Variations • Worker Strength and Fitness • Hobbies • Alcohol Consumption • Smoking

  9. Psychosocial Factors • Job Demands • Job Content • Job Control • Social Interactions • Job Future and Career Issues • Technology Issues • Organizational and Management Issues

  10. The Risk Risk is increased by industry and occupation Risk is increased by length of time in the job Risk may be increased by employee behavior

  11. MSD Symptoms • Painful joints • Pain, tingling or numbness in hands or feet • Shooting or stabbing pains in arms or legs • Swelling or inflammation • Burning sensation • Pain in wrists, shoulders, forearms, knees • Fingers or toes turning white • Back or neck pain • Stiffness

  12. Trauma Healing Valve

  13. Trauma CTD Healing Valve

  14. Exertional Descriptors for Job Tasks Intensity of Exertion “Required strength, force, %MVC” Duration of Exertion “% Duration of exertions” Frequency of Exertions “Efforts per minute” Hand/Wrist Posture “Position of hand/wrist” Speed of Work “How fast the worker is working” Duration Per Day “Duration of task per day”

  15. Example

  16. Body Parts Analyzed • Hands and Wrists – right & left • Elbows – right & left • Shoulders – right & left • Neck • Back • Legs

  17. The Hands and Wrists

  18. Pinch Grips

  19. Finger Press

  20. Radial Deviation

  21. Ulnar Deviation

  22. Wrist Flexion

  23. Wrist Extension

  24. Pinch Grip When the measured force exertion is > 2 lb

  25. Power Grip Thumb overlapping or touching the forefinger while exerting > 10 lb

  26. Duration > 10 sec – Any one risk posture sustained for longer than 10 seconds

  27. Frequency > 30/min – A cumulative measure of any combination of risk postures occurring 30 times per minute

  28. The Elbows

  29. Forearm Rotation

  30. Full Extension > 135°

  31. Force > 10 lb – A force exertion of greater than 10 lb from picking up an object or applying an external force

  32. Duration There is no duration component for the elbow

  33. Frequency > 2/min – A cumulative measure of any combination of risk postures occurring 2 times per minute

  34. The Shoulders

  35. Shoulder Raiser > 45º

  36. Arm Behind the Body