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Chapter 25. The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution. Timeline. Map 25.1: Europe in 1914. The Road to World War I. Nationalism and Internal Dissent Nationalism Liberals claimed that creation of national states would bring peace

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Chapter 25


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    1. Chapter 25 The Beginning of the Twentieth-Century Crisis: War and Revolution

    2. Timeline

    3. Map 25.1: Europe in 1914

    4. The Road to World War I • Nationalism and Internal Dissent • Nationalism • Liberals claimed that creation of national states would bring peace • Led to competition instead of cooperation • Brinkmanship • Internal dissent • Ethnic tensions • Growing power of Socialist labor movements • Militarism • Conscription • Influence of military leaders • The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914 • The effects of the Balkan Wars prior to 1914 • Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife Sophia, June 28, 1914 • Germany gives “full support” to Austria • Russian mobilization • Schlieffen Plan 

    5. The Schlieffen Plan

    6. The War 1914-195: Illusions & Stalemate • European attitudes toward the beginning of war • Failure of the Schlieffen Plan • First Battle of the Marne, September 6-10, 1914 • Russian Failures • Battle of Tannenberg, August 30, 1914 • Battle of Masurian Lakes, September 15, 1914 • Austrian Failures • Galicia and Serbia • Germans come to Austria’s aid

    7. Battle Scene in Northern France

    8. The War 1916-1917: The Great Slaughter • Trench warfare • “No-man’s land” • “Softening up” the enemy • Battle of Verdun, 70,000 lost • Battle of the Somme, 1916 • Heaviest one-day loss in World War I

    9. Trench Warfare in France

    10. Map 25. 2: The Western Front, 1914-1918

    11. Map 25.3: The Eastern Front, 1914-1918

    12. The Widening of the War • August 1914: Ottoman Empire enters the war • Battle of Gallipoli, April 1915 • May 1915: Italy enters the war against Austria-Hungary • September 1915: Bulgaria enters the war on the side of the Central Powers • Middle East • Lawrence of Arabia (1888-1935) • April 1917: Entry of the United States • The United States tried to remain neutral • Sinking of the Lusitania, May 7, 1915 • Return to unrestricted submarine warfare January 1917 • United States enters the war, April 6, 1917 • Bolshevik Revolution, 1917

    13. A New Kind of Warfare • Air Power • 1915: first use of airplanes on the battle-front • German use of zeppelins • Tanks • 1916: first use of tanks on the battlefield • Early tanks ineffective • 1918: British Mark V first effective tank

    14. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War • Government Centralization • Conscription • Effects on Economies • Public Order and Public Opinion • Dealing with unrest • Defense of the Realm Act • Propaganda • Social Impact of Total War • Labor benefits • New roles for women • Male concern over wages • Women began to demand equal pay • Gains for women

    15. The Russian Revolution • War and Discontent • Nicholas II was an autocratic ruler • Russia not prepared for war • Influence of Rasputin • The March Revolution • Problems in Petrograd • March of the women, March 8, 1917 • Calls for a general strike • Soldiers join the marchers • Provisional Government takes control • Alexander Kerensky (1881-1970) • Tried to carry on the war • Soviets sprang up • Bolsheviks under the leadership of Vladimir Ulianov, 1870-1924 • Sent back to Russia in a sealed train by the Germans • “Peace, land and bread”

    16. Map 25.4: The Russian Revolution

    17. Russian Revolution (cont) • The Bolshevik Revolution • Bolsheviks control Petrograd and Moscow soviets • Collapse of Provisional Government, November 6-7, 1917 • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, March 3, 1918 • Civil War • Bolshevik (Red) army and Anti-Bolshevik (White) army • Murder of the Tsar and his family (July 16, 1918) • Disunity among the white army • Communists and “War communism” • Invasion of allied troops • 19121: Communists victory

    18. The Last Year of the War • Last German offensive, March 21-July 18, 1918 • Allied counterattack, Second Battle of the Marne, July 18, 1918 • General Ludendorff informs German leaders that the war is lost • William II abdicates, November 9, 1918 • Republic established • Armistice, November 11, 1918 • The Casualties of the War • 8 to 9 million soldiers killed, 22 million wounded

    19. Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary • Revolution in Germany • Division of German Socialists • Formation of two governments • Failure of radicals to achieve control • Revolution in Austria • Ethnic upheaval • Formation of independent republics

    20. The Peace Settlement • Palace of Versailles, January 1919, 27 Allied nations • Woodrow Wilson, Fourteen Points • Pragmatism of other states • Lloyd George determined to make Germany pay • Georges Clemenceau of France concerned with his nation’s security • January 25, 1919, the principle of the League of Nations adopted

    21. The Treaty of Versailles • Five separate treaties (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) • The most important was the Treaty of Versailles, June 18, 1919 • Article 231, War Guilt Clause • 100,000 man army • Loss of Alsace and Lorraine • Sections of Prussia to the new Polish state • German charges of a “dictated peace”

    22. The Other Peace Treaties • German and Russian Empires lost territory in eastern Europe • New nation-states: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary • Romania acquired additional lands from Russia, Hungary, and Bulgaria • Yugoslavia • Compromises will lead to future problems • Minorities in every eastern European states • Ottoman Empire dismembered • Promises of independence of Arab states in the Middle East • Mandates • France – Lebanon and Syria • Britain – Iraq and Palestine • United States Senate rejects the Versailles Peace Treaty

    23. Map 25.5: Europe in 1919

    24. The Middle East in 1919

    25. Discussion Questions • Why were so many Europeans eager for war in 1914? Did Europe’s governments share their enthusiasm? • What was “total war”? How did European governments meet the challenge of total mobilization? • Why were so many people in the United States reluctant to get involved in World War I? Why did Woodrow Wilson see U.S. involvement as a necessity? • Describe the goals of the major participants at the peace talks. How were these goals incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles?

    26. Web Links • World War I: Trenches on the Web • The First World War: A Multimedia History • World War I: Document Archive • The Russian Revolution • The Empire That Was Russia