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The Atmosphere Atmosphere Basics State of the Atmosphere Moisture in Atmosphere Chap. 11 Atmosphere Basics – 11.1 Describe the composition of the atmosphere Compare and contrast the various layers of the atmosphere Identify three methods of transferring energy throughout the atmosphere

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The atmosphere l.jpg

The Atmosphere

Atmosphere Basics

State of the Atmosphere

Moisture in Atmosphere

Chap. 11


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Atmosphere Basics – 11.1

  • Describe the composition of the atmosphere

  • Compare and contrast the various layers of the atmosphere

  • Identify three methods of transferring energy throughout the atmosphere

http://eob.gsfc.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages



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  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen


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  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen

  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%


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  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen

  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%

  • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%


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  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen

  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%

  • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%

  • There are solids in the atmosphere


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  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen

  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%

  • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%

  • There are solids in the atmosphere

  • Dust

  • Salt

  • Ice



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II. Important gases of atmosphere

  • Carbon dioxide and water

http://weathersavvy.com/Q-Clouds_AffectTemperature.html


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II. Important gases of atmosphere

  • Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth.

  • Ozone

http://radio.weblogs.com/0105910/2004/03/03.html


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II. Important gases of atmosphere

  • Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth.

  • Ozone – absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation.



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III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Troposphere

  • Closest to Earth.

  • Weather and pollution occur here.

  • Temp. decreases as altitude increases.

  • Ends at about 16 km at tropics, 9 km near poles.



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III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Stratosphere

  • Composed mostly of ozone.

  • Is warmed by solar radiation. The higher the altitude the warmer.



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III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Mesosphere

  • No ozone.

  • This layer gets cooler as you ascend.



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III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Thermosphere

  • Temperature more than 1000º C.

  • There are very few air particles here.

  • Includes ions in a region called the _________.


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III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Thermosphere

  • Temperature more than 1000º C.

  • There are very few air particles here.

  • Includes ions in a region called the ionosphere.



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III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Exosphere

  • Light gases found here (hydrogen and helium).

  • Gradually transitions into space.



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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)

  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)

  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.

  • Radiation heats ________ objects faster.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)

  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.

  • Radiation heats dark objects faster.

  • Radiation heats water ______ than land.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)

  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.

  • Radiation heats dark objects faster.

  • Radiation heats water slower than land.

  • Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)

  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.

  • Radiation heats dark objects faster.

  • Radiation heats water slower than land.

  • Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves.

  • When solar radiation hits surface of the Earth, the wavelength becomes longer.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Conduction – transferring energy by contact.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Conduction – transferring energy by contact.

  • Warm particles collide with cooler particles.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Conduction – transferring energy by contact.

  • Warm particles collide with cooler particles.

  • This really only heats air near surface.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.

  • Warm particles have lower density and rise.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.

  • Warm particles have lower density and rise.

  • Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall.


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IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.

  • Warm particles have lower density and rise.

  • Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall.

  • This motion creates convection currents.



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Earth’s atmosphere from the ISS (360 km above Earth)

  • Describe the various properties of the atmosphere and how they interact

  • Explain why atmospheric properties change with changes in altitude

State of the Atmosphere – 11.2



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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance

  • Heat describes a transfer of energy


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature scales


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature scales

  • Fahrenheit


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature scales

  • Fahrenheit

  • Celsius


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature scales

  • Fahrenheit

  • Celsius

  • Kelvin


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature scales

  • Dew point (condensation temp.)

Temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature scales

  • Dew point (condensation temp.)

  • This varies depending on water content of the air


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I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat

  • Temperature scales

  • Dew point (condensation temp.)

  • This varies depending on water content of the air

  • When temperature reaches dew point, condensation can occur


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I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes


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I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes

  • Air cools as elevation increases


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I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes

  • Air cools as elevation increases

  • Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m


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I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes

  • Air cools as elevation increases

  • Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m

  • If you travel high enough, the air cools to the dew point. This is called the lifted condensation level (LCL)


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I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes

  • Air cools as elevation increases

  • Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m

  • If you travel high enough, the air cools to the dew point. This is called the lifted condensation level (LCL)

  • Moist air cools at about 6ºC / 1000 m



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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • The air near the Earth’s surface is ______ than air further up


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • The air near the Earth’s surface is denser than air further up

  • The higher you go, the lower the pressure because . . .


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • Temperature–Pressure relationship


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • Temperature–Pressure relationship

  • As the temperature goes ↑, the pressure goes ___.


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • Temperature–Pressure relationship

  • As the temperature goes ↑, the pressure goes ↑ .

  • This relationship is called a direct relationship.


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • Temperature–Pressure relationship

  • Temperature-Density relationship


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • Temperature–Pressure relationship

  • Temperature-Density relationship

  • As the temperature ↑, the density goes ___ .


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II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density

  • Temperature–Pressure relationship

  • Temperature-Density relationship

  • As the temperature ↑, the density goes _↓_ .

  • This relationship is called an inverse relationship.



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III. Temperature Inversions

  • The temperature of the air increases the higher the elevation.


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III. Temperature Inversions

  • The temperature of the air increases the higher the elevation.

  • These layers act like a lid, holding in gases below.



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IV. Wind

  • Results from differences in temperature.


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IV. Wind

  • Results from differences in temperature.

  • Warm air has a lower density and rises causing low pressure


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IV. Wind

  • Results from differences in temperature.

  • Warm air has a lower density and rises causing low pressure

  • Cooler air has a higher density and falls, causing high pressure



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V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:


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V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:

  • How much moisture is in the air


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V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:

  • How much moisture is in the air

  • How much moisture could be in the air

Amount of moisture present

x 100

Amount of moisture possible


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V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:

  • How much moisture is in the air

  • How much moisture could be in the air

  • Note – warm air holds more moisture.


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V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:

  • How much moisture is in the air

  • How much moisture could be in the air

  • Note – warm air holds more moisture.

  • If the relative humidity is 100% this means the atmosphere is __________.



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Moisture in the Atmosphere - 11.3


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Warm, moist air rises.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Warm, moist air rises.

  • This air expands and cools


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Warm, moist air rises.

  • This air expands and cools

  • The air reaches its dew point


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Warm, moist air rises.

  • This air expands and cools

  • The air reaches its dew point

  • Water droplets condense around condensation nuclei

Surface on which water droplets can form. Smoke or dust particles can act as condensation nuclei


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Warm, moist air rises.

  • This air expands and cools

  • The air reaches its dew point

  • Water droplets condense around condensation nuclei

  • A cloud forms


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Orographic lifting

Cloud formation as a result of wind moving air into a mountain. This moves the air upward.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Orographic lifting

  • Warm air encounters cold air


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Atmospheric stability

The ability to resist rising


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Atmospheric stability

  • A stable atmosphere has no clouds, or thin, layers of clouds.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Atmospheric stability

  • A stable atmosphere has no clouds, or thin, layers of clouds.

  • An unstable atmosphere will have vertical development. Thunderstorms indicate an unstable atmosphere.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Atmospheric stability

  • Latent heat

The heat exchanged during a phase change.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Atmospheric stability

  • Latent heat

  • Energy required to evaporate water is stored in the water vapor.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds

  • Causes for warm air to rise

  • Atmospheric stability

  • Latent heat

  • Energy required to evaporate water is stored in the water vapor.

  • When the water vapor condenses this heat is released.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Cirrus

http://www.cloudman.com/atlas/atlas.htm

Form high in atmosphere, made of ice crystals, appear as thin, white, feathery clouds


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Cirrus

  • Cumulus

Flat-based, puffy white clouds with cauliflower appearance on top. Extends vertically several thousand ft.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Cirrus

  • Cumulus

  • Stratus

3 main cloud types

http://www.cloudman.com/atlas/atlas.htm

Layered cloud that covers most of the sky. Forms at low altitudes. Often gray.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Cirrus

  • Cumulus

  • Stratus

  • Cirrostratus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

High, thin clouds that give sky a milky white appearance.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Cirrus

  • Cumulus

  • Stratus

  • Cirrostratus

  • Cirrocumulus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Delicate clouds forming in bands a ripples. These rare clouds form when cirrus clouds degenerate.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Altostratus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Clouds of intermediate height, having blue-gray appearance. Composed of ice crystals and water.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Altostratus

  • Altocumulus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Have oval shapes, colored white with gray undersides. May produce mild precipitation.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Altostratus

  • Altocumulus

  • Nimbostatus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Often associated with steady precipitation. Can occur in thick, continuous layers.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Altostratus

  • Altocumulus

  • Nimbostatus

  • Stratocumulus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Can cover the sky in dark, heavy masses. Form irregular masses close to the ground.


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I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds

  • Altostratus

  • Altocumulus

  • Nimbostatus

  • Stratocumulus

  • Cumulonimbus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Puffy, white cloud. Towering clouds that extend upward to heights of 2-5 miles. Cause thunderstorms