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The Atmosphere

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  1. The Atmosphere Atmosphere Basics State of the Atmosphere Moisture in Atmosphere Chap. 11

  2. Atmosphere Basics – 11.1 • Describe the composition of the atmosphere • Compare and contrast the various layers of the atmosphere • Identify three methods of transferring energy throughout the atmosphere http://eob.gsfc.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages

  3. Atmospheric composition

  4. Atmospheric composition • 99% nitrogen and oxygen

  5. Atmospheric composition • 99% nitrogen and oxygen • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%

  6. Atmospheric composition • 99% nitrogen and oxygen • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1% • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%

  7. Atmospheric composition • 99% nitrogen and oxygen • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1% • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4% • There are solids in the atmosphere

  8. Atmospheric composition • 99% nitrogen and oxygen • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1% • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4% • There are solids in the atmosphere • Dust • Salt • Ice

  9. II. Important gases of atmosphere

  10. II. Important gases of atmosphere • Carbon dioxide and water http://weathersavvy.com/Q-Clouds_AffectTemperature.html

  11. II. Important gases of atmosphere • Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth. • Ozone http://radio.weblogs.com/0105910/2004/03/03.html

  12. II. Important gases of atmosphere • Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth. • Ozone – absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

  13. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Troposphere

  14. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Troposphere • Closest to Earth. • Weather and pollution occur here. • Temp. decreases as altitude increases. • Ends at about 16 km at tropics, 9 km near poles.

  15. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Stratosphere

  16. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Stratosphere • Composed mostly of ozone. • Is warmed by solar radiation. The higher the altitude the warmer.

  17. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Mesosphere

  18. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Mesosphere • No ozone. • This layer gets cooler as you ascend.

  19. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Thermosphere

  20. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Thermosphere • Temperature more than 1000º C. • There are very few air particles here. • Includes ions in a region called the _________.

  21. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Thermosphere • Temperature more than 1000º C. • There are very few air particles here. • Includes ions in a region called the ionosphere.

  22. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Exosphere

  23. III. Layers of the Atmosphere • Exosphere • Light gases found here (hydrogen and helium). • Gradually transitions into space.

  24. IV. Energy Transfer

  25. IV. Energy Transfer • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)

  26. IV. Energy Transfer • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) • Not all this energy stays on Earth.

  27. IV. Energy Transfer • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) • Not all this energy stays on Earth. • Radiation heats ________ objects faster.

  28. IV. Energy Transfer • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) • Not all this energy stays on Earth. • Radiation heats dark objects faster. • Radiation heats water ______ than land.

  29. IV. Energy Transfer • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) • Not all this energy stays on Earth. • Radiation heats dark objects faster. • Radiation heats water slower than land. • Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves.

  30. IV. Energy Transfer • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.) • Not all this energy stays on Earth. • Radiation heats dark objects faster. • Radiation heats water slower than land. • Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves. • When solar radiation hits surface of the Earth, the wavelength becomes longer.

  31. IV. Energy Transfer • Conduction – transferring energy by contact.

  32. IV. Energy Transfer • Conduction – transferring energy by contact. • Warm particles collide with cooler particles.

  33. IV. Energy Transfer • Conduction – transferring energy by contact. • Warm particles collide with cooler particles. • This really only heats air near surface.

  34. IV. Energy Transfer • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.

  35. IV. Energy Transfer • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance. • Warm particles have lower density and rise.

  36. IV. Energy Transfer • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance. • Warm particles have lower density and rise. • Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall.

  37. IV. Energy Transfer • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance. • Warm particles have lower density and rise. • Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall. • This motion creates convection currents.

  38. The End

  39. Earth’s atmosphere from the ISS (360 km above Earth) • Describe the various properties of the atmosphere and how they interact • Explain why atmospheric properties change with changes in altitude State of the Atmosphere – 11.2

  40. I. Temperature

  41. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat

  42. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance

  43. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance • Heat describes a transfer of energy

  44. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature scales

  45. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature scales • Fahrenheit

  46. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature scales • Fahrenheit • Celsius

  47. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature scales • Fahrenheit • Celsius • Kelvin

  48. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature scales • Dew point (condensation temp.) Temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation

  49. I. Temperature • Temperature is different from heat • Temperature scales • Dew point (condensation temp.) • This varies depending on water content of the air