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The Atmosphere Atmosphere Basics State of the Atmosphere Moisture in Atmosphere Chap. 11 Atmosphere Basics – 11.1 Describe the composition of the atmosphere Compare and contrast the various layers of the atmosphere Identify three methods of transferring energy throughout the atmosphere

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the atmosphere

The Atmosphere

Atmosphere Basics

State of the Atmosphere

Moisture in Atmosphere

Chap. 11

atmosphere basics 11 1

Atmosphere Basics – 11.1

  • Describe the composition of the atmosphere
  • Compare and contrast the various layers of the atmosphere
  • Identify three methods of transferring energy throughout the atmosphere

http://eob.gsfc.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages

slide4

Atmospheric composition

  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen
slide5

Atmospheric composition

  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen
  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%
slide6

Atmospheric composition

  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen
  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%
  • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%
slide7

Atmospheric composition

  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen
  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%
  • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%
  • There are solids in the atmosphere
slide8

Atmospheric composition

  • 99% nitrogen and oxygen
  • Argon, hydrogen, carbon dioxide water, and other gases make up 1%
  • The amount of water in the atmosphere varies from 0% to 4%
  • There are solids in the atmosphere
  • Dust
  • Salt
  • Ice
slide10

II. Important gases of atmosphere

  • Carbon dioxide and water

http://weathersavvy.com/Q-Clouds_AffectTemperature.html

slide11

II. Important gases of atmosphere

  • Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth.
  • Ozone

http://radio.weblogs.com/0105910/2004/03/03.html

slide12

II. Important gases of atmosphere

  • Carbon dioxide and water – regulate the temperature of the earth.
  • Ozone – absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
slide14

III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Troposphere
  • Closest to Earth.
  • Weather and pollution occur here.
  • Temp. decreases as altitude increases.
  • Ends at about 16 km at tropics, 9 km near poles.
slide16

III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Stratosphere
  • Composed mostly of ozone.
  • Is warmed by solar radiation. The higher the altitude the warmer.
slide18

III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Mesosphere
  • No ozone.
  • This layer gets cooler as you ascend.
slide20

III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Thermosphere
  • Temperature more than 1000º C.
  • There are very few air particles here.
  • Includes ions in a region called the _________.
slide21

III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Thermosphere
  • Temperature more than 1000º C.
  • There are very few air particles here.
  • Includes ions in a region called the ionosphere.
slide23

III. Layers of the Atmosphere

  • Exosphere
  • Light gases found here (hydrogen and helium).
  • Gradually transitions into space.
slide26

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)
slide27

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)
  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.
slide28

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)
  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.
  • Radiation heats ________ objects faster.
slide29

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)
  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.
  • Radiation heats dark objects faster.
  • Radiation heats water ______ than land.
slide30

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)
  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.
  • Radiation heats dark objects faster.
  • Radiation heats water slower than land.
  • Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves.
slide31

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Radiation – transferring energy through space by way of light (visible, UV, etc.)
  • Not all this energy stays on Earth.
  • Radiation heats dark objects faster.
  • Radiation heats water slower than land.
  • Hot things emit shorter wavelengths of radiation. Cooler things emit longer waves.
  • When solar radiation hits surface of the Earth, the wavelength becomes longer.
slide32

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Conduction – transferring energy by contact.
slide33

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Conduction – transferring energy by contact.
  • Warm particles collide with cooler particles.
slide34

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Conduction – transferring energy by contact.
  • Warm particles collide with cooler particles.
  • This really only heats air near surface.
slide35

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.
slide36

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.
  • Warm particles have lower density and rise.
slide37

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.
  • Warm particles have lower density and rise.
  • Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall.
slide38

IV. Energy Transfer

  • Convection – transferring energy by flow of heated substance.
  • Warm particles have lower density and rise.
  • Warm particles cool, which causes them to fall.
  • This motion creates convection currents.
state of the atmosphere 11 2

Earth’s atmosphere from the ISS (360 km above Earth)

  • Describe the various properties of the atmosphere and how they interact
  • Explain why atmospheric properties change with changes in altitude

State of the Atmosphere – 11.2

slide42

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
slide43

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance
slide44

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature measures the average speed of the particles of a substance
  • Heat describes a transfer of energy
slide45

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature scales
slide46

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature scales
  • Fahrenheit
slide47

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature scales
  • Fahrenheit
  • Celsius
slide48

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature scales
  • Fahrenheit
  • Celsius
  • Kelvin
slide49

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature scales
  • Dew point (condensation temp.)

Temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure to reach saturation

slide50

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature scales
  • Dew point (condensation temp.)
  • This varies depending on water content of the air
slide51

I. Temperature

  • Temperature is different from heat
  • Temperature scales
  • Dew point (condensation temp.)
  • This varies depending on water content of the air
  • When temperature reaches dew point, condensation can occur
slide52

I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes
slide53

I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes
  • Air cools as elevation increases
slide54

I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes
  • Air cools as elevation increases
  • Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m
slide55

I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes
  • Air cools as elevation increases
  • Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m
  • If you travel high enough, the air cools to the dew point. This is called the lifted condensation level (LCL)
slide56

I. Temperature

  • Vertical temperature changes
  • Air cools as elevation increases
  • Dry air cools at about 10ºC / 1000 m
  • If you travel high enough, the air cools to the dew point. This is called the lifted condensation level (LCL)
  • Moist air cools at about 6ºC / 1000 m
slide59

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
slide60

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • The air near the Earth’s surface is ______ than air further up
slide61

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • The air near the Earth’s surface is denser than air further up
  • The higher you go, the lower the pressure because . . .
slide62

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • Temperature–Pressure relationship
slide63

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • Temperature–Pressure relationship
  • As the temperature goes ↑, the pressure goes ___.
slide64

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • Temperature–Pressure relationship
  • As the temperature goes ↑, the pressure goes ↑ .
  • This relationship is called a direct relationship.
slide65

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • Temperature–Pressure relationship
  • Temperature-Density relationship
slide66

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • Temperature–Pressure relationship
  • Temperature-Density relationship
  • As the temperature ↑, the density goes ___ .
slide67

II. Pressure

  • Air pressure and density
  • Temperature–Pressure relationship
  • Temperature-Density relationship
  • As the temperature ↑, the density goes _↓_ .
  • This relationship is called an inverse relationship.
slide69

III. Temperature Inversions

  • The temperature of the air increases the higher the elevation.
slide70

III. Temperature Inversions

  • The temperature of the air increases the higher the elevation.
  • These layers act like a lid, holding in gases below.
slide72

IV. Wind

  • Results from differences in temperature.
slide73

IV. Wind

  • Results from differences in temperature.
  • Warm air has a lower density and rises causing low pressure
slide74

IV. Wind

  • Results from differences in temperature.
  • Warm air has a lower density and rises causing low pressure
  • Cooler air has a higher density and falls, causing high pressure
slide76

V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:
slide77

V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:
  • How much moisture is in the air
slide78

V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:
  • How much moisture is in the air
  • How much moisture could be in the air

Amount of moisture present

x 100

Amount of moisture possible

slide79

V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:
  • How much moisture is in the air
  • How much moisture could be in the air
  • Note – warm air holds more moisture.
slide80

V. Relative Humidity

  • Relative humidity depends on:
  • How much moisture is in the air
  • How much moisture could be in the air
  • Note – warm air holds more moisture.
  • If the relative humidity is 100% this means the atmosphere is __________.
moisture in the atmosphere 11 3

Explain how clouds are formed

  • Identify the basic characteristics of different cloud groups
  • Describe the water cycle

Moisture in the Atmosphere - 11.3

slide83

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
slide84

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Warm, moist air rises.
slide85

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Warm, moist air rises.
  • This air expands and cools
slide86

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Warm, moist air rises.
  • This air expands and cools
  • The air reaches its dew point
slide87

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Warm, moist air rises.
  • This air expands and cools
  • The air reaches its dew point
  • Water droplets condense around condensation nuclei

Surface on which water droplets can form. Smoke or dust particles can act as condensation nuclei

slide88

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Warm, moist air rises.
  • This air expands and cools
  • The air reaches its dew point
  • Water droplets condense around condensation nuclei
  • A cloud forms
slide89

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
slide90

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Orographic lifting

Cloud formation as a result of wind moving air into a mountain. This moves the air upward.

slide91

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Orographic lifting
  • Warm air encounters cold air
slide92

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Atmospheric stability

The ability to resist rising

slide93

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Atmospheric stability
  • A stable atmosphere has no clouds, or thin, layers of clouds.
slide94

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Atmospheric stability
  • A stable atmosphere has no clouds, or thin, layers of clouds.
  • An unstable atmosphere will have vertical development. Thunderstorms indicate an unstable atmosphere.
slide95

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Atmospheric stability
  • Latent heat

The heat exchanged during a phase change.

slide96

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Atmospheric stability
  • Latent heat
  • Energy required to evaporate water is stored in the water vapor.
slide97

I. Cloud Formation

  • Steps to making clouds
  • Causes for warm air to rise
  • Atmospheric stability
  • Latent heat
  • Energy required to evaporate water is stored in the water vapor.
  • When the water vapor condenses this heat is released.
slide98

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
slide99

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Cirrus

http://www.cloudman.com/atlas/atlas.htm

Form high in atmosphere, made of ice crystals, appear as thin, white, feathery clouds

slide100

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Cirrus
  • Cumulus

Flat-based, puffy white clouds with cauliflower appearance on top. Extends vertically several thousand ft.

slide101

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Cirrus
  • Cumulus
  • Stratus

3 main cloud types

http://www.cloudman.com/atlas/atlas.htm

Layered cloud that covers most of the sky. Forms at low altitudes. Often gray.

slide102

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Cirrus
  • Cumulus
  • Stratus
  • Cirrostratus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

High, thin clouds that give sky a milky white appearance.

slide103

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Cirrus
  • Cumulus
  • Stratus
  • Cirrostratus
  • Cirrocumulus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Delicate clouds forming in bands a ripples. These rare clouds form when cirrus clouds degenerate.

slide104

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Altostratus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Clouds of intermediate height, having blue-gray appearance. Composed of ice crystals and water.

slide105

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Altostratus
  • Altocumulus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Have oval shapes, colored white with gray undersides. May produce mild precipitation.

slide106

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Altostratus
  • Altocumulus
  • Nimbostatus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Often associated with steady precipitation. Can occur in thick, continuous layers.

slide107

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Altostratus
  • Altocumulus
  • Nimbostatus
  • Stratocumulus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Can cover the sky in dark, heavy masses. Form irregular masses close to the ground.

slide108

I. Cloud Formation

  • Types of clouds
  • Altostratus
  • Altocumulus
  • Nimbostatus
  • Stratocumulus
  • Cumulonimbus

http://quest.arc.nasa.gov

Puffy, white cloud. Towering clouds that extend upward to heights of 2-5 miles. Cause thunderstorms