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Introduction to Animal Diversity. Packet #76 Chapter #32. Animal Diversity. Biologists have identified 1.3 million living species if animals. Estimates put the range much higher 10 – 200 million

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animal diversity
Animal Diversity
  • Biologists have identified 1.3 million living species if animals.
  • Estimates put the range much higher
    • 10 – 200 million
  • Evolutionists believe that the chanoflagellates, a colonial flagellated protist, was the start of Kingdom Animalia.
characteristics most common to animals
Characteristics Most Common to Animals
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Animals use enzymes to digest their food after they have ingested it.
  • Stores energy as fat (long term) or as glycogen (short term)
reproduction the obvious
Reproduction—The Obvious
  • Most animals reproduce sexually and have a diploid stage that is dominant in the life cycle.
  • Sperm and egg unite to form a zygote
    • Zygote undergoes cleavage
    • Multiple cell divisions result in the development of a hollow ball of cells
      • Blastula
    • Blastula undergoes gastrulation.
      • Embryonic tissues are formed
      • Developmental stage is called the gastrula.
reproduction the sometimes not so obvious
Reproduction—The Sometimes Not So Obvious
  • Some animals develop directly into adults
    • After transient stages of maturation
  • However, life cycle of many animals include larval stages.
    • Larva
      • Sexually immature form of an adult
      • Morphologically distinct
      • Usually eats different food
      • Inhabits different areas than the adult
      • Must undergo metamorphosis to become an adult
developmental genes across kingdom animalia
Developmental Genes Across Kingdom Animalia
  • Animals share a unique homeobox
    • Family of genes
      • Hox genes
        • The number of hox genes is correlated with the complexity of the animal’s anatomy.
categorizing kingdom animalia
Categorizing Kingdom Animalia
  • Animals are classified on major features of animal body plans.
    • Symmetry
    • Tissue Complexity
    • Cephalization
    • Body Cavities
body plans
Body Plans


  • There are two types of symmetry
    • Radial Symmetry
    • Bilateral Symmetry
  • Radial Symmetry
    • Describes how the parts of an animal radiate from the center.
      • Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images.
    • Sea anemones have a top (oral, mouth) side and a bottom (aboral) side.
symmetry ii
Symmetry II
  • Bilateral Symmetry
    • Describes a two sided body plan.
      • Animal has a left side and right side
    • Imaginary slice can only be placed in one location in order to divide the animal mirror images.
    • Lobster has a dorsal (top) side, a ventral (bottom) side, a left and right side, an anterior (head) with a mouth and a posterior (tail) end.
symmetry iii
Symmetry III
  • Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies or lack of it.
  • Symmetry Reflects Lifestyle
    • Radial animals are sessile or planktonic
    • Bilaterial animals more actively from one place to another
      • The nervous system enables these organisms to move.
tissue i
Tissue I
  • As a young embryo develops, embryonic tissue, called germ layers, are produced via gastrulation.
  • There are three germ layers
    • Ectoderm
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
tissue ii
Tissue II
  • Ectoderm
    • Outer layer
    • Gives rise to the body covering and the nervous system
  • Endoderm
    • Inner layer
    • Gives rise to the lining of the gut (archenteron) and other digestive organs
  • Mesoderm
    • Middle layer
    • Gives rise to most other body structures.
      • Including muscle
diploblastic vs triploblastic
Diploblastic vs. Triploblastic
  • Diploblastic
    • Animals with only two layers
      • Ectoderm and Endoderm
        • Jellies
        • Corals
        • Comb jellies
  • Triploblastic
    • Animals with all three layers
    • Include all bilaterally symmetric animals.
functions of body cavities
Functions of Body Cavities
  • Provides protection to internal organs
  • Allow organs to grow and move independently of the outer body wall.
body cavity i
Body Cavity I
  • Triploblastic animals have traditionally been classified as
    • Acoelomates [ey-see-luh-meyt]
      • No body cavity
      • Lack a coelom. [see-luhm]
    • Pseudocoelomate [soo-doh-see-luh-meyt, -si-loh-mit]
      • Body cavity not completely lined with mesoderm
      • Body cavity formed from the blastocoel.
    • Coelomate
      • True coelom
      • Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm.
      • Cushions the internal organs and protects them.
formation of the coelom see luhm
Formation of the Coelom [see-luhm]
  • Coeloms can be divided into two categories based on how it is developed.
  • During gastrulation, developing digestive tube forms the archenteron.
  • Protostomes
    • Development of the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm
      • Schizocoelous Development
  • Deuterostomes
    • Development of the coelom forms from outpocketing of the mesodermal tissue of the archenteron.
      • Enterocoelous Development
introduction i
Introduction I
  • Protostomia
    • Mollusks
    • Annelids
    • Arthropods
  • Deuterostomia
    • Enchinoderms
    • Chordates
  • Blastopore develops into the mouth
  • Undergo spiral and determinate cleavage
    • Spiral cleavage
      • Describes how the planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo.
        • Smaller cells lie in the grooves between larger, underlying cells
    • Determinate cleavage
      • Indicates that the developmental fate of each embryonic cell is determined at fertilization.
        • If cell is isolated it will form an inviable embryo.
  • Blastopore typically becomes the anus.
  • Undergo radial and indeterminate cleavage.
    • Radial cleavage
      • Cleavage planes are either parallel or perpendicular to the vertical axis of the egg
    • Indeterminate cleavage
      • Each cell produced by early cleavage divisions has the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.