FACILITATIVE/NON-FACILITATIVE FACTORS AND SUCCESS CRITERIA IN THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (AD/HD)___________________________________ Edilberto I. Dizon, Ed.D. Professor of Special Education University of the Philippines and SPED Diagnostician-Counselor ChildFind Therapy Center
Among children with disabilities, those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) are often the most misunderstood. This is so because of the atypical behaviors they exhibit despite their ability levels. Such behaviors: hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity are often not deliberately demonstrated to spite others. These behaviors usually get out control beyond the cognitive and affective levels of the child. Thus, these children are often mislabeled as “bastos”, “makulit”, “walangmodo” at “ditinuturuanngmagulang”.
The figure on the next page presents a diagram showing child, home, school and community factors. The specific factors that apply to each individual with AD/HD will significantly determine the success he willachieve in the future. Thus, it is imperative to articulate thatsuccess criteria gauging the achievement of an individualat any life phase areattributedto suchfacilitative or non-facilitativefactors.
Child-Related Factors1. Age of the child2. Severity of the AD/HD3. Limitations/Disabilities the child has aside from his/her AD/HD4. Mental ability levelof the child5. Grade level of the child
Home-Related Factors1. Number of siblings and household members2. Family dynamics and ideology pertaining to intervention3. Physical set-up/condition/structure of the home4. Presence of supportservice-givers5. Home routine and involvement of parents and other home members in interventionprovision
School-Related Factors1. School’s interventional ideology and logistics2. Type of placement program3. Class size4. Physical set-up/structure/condition5. Teacher and staff preparation6. Preparation of other childrenand their parents
Community-Related Factors1. Community expectations2. Community accommodation3. Community support
Success Criteria in the Education of Children with AD/HD The following presentation specifies seven (7) life phases: from preschool onto family life. Each phase has a criterion (a priority), its theme, and thereafter, the specific indicators of success in that phase. This life-span model as shown by the figure presents the indicators of success phase by phase. This is, I believe, the best way to see how a growing child with AD/HD can be evaluated (by him/herself or by others) in terms of self-improvement toward self-actualization, self-enhancement and self-fulfillment.
Criterion 1: Behavior ConcernTheme: Self-Regulation: From External to Internal Locus of ControlIndicatorsDoes the child:1. sit?2. attend?3. focus?4. comply?5. perform?6. finish a task?7. follow a daily routine?
Criterion 2: Social ConcernTheme: Social Reciprocity and ProprietyIndicatorsDoes the child:1. wait for his turn?2. compromise/defer need gratifications?3. accept mistakes/defeats graciously?4. demonstrate stable/manageable moods?5. handle frustrations?6. empathize/understand the consequencesof his/her behaviors?7. follow class/home rules?8. observe expected social standardsin different places?9. perform simple chores responsibly?
Criterion 3: Communication ConcernTheme: Verbal Expression and ProprietyIndicatorsDoes the child:1. comprehend instructions/advice/suggestions beforereacting impulsively?2. express feelings verbally rather than get physicallydemanding/aggressive?3. complain tactfully rather than throwtantrums and/ordare others?4. discern/discriminate appropriateverbal reciprocity (e.g., sayingpolite terms, observing conversationstandards/etiquette)?5. listen to and accommodatesuggestions of others?6. disclose problems to trustedadults – suspending first anger,impulsivity, or defensive behaviors?
Criterion 4: Academic ConcernTheme: Focused and Sustained PerformanceIndicatorsDoes the child:1. prepare for school readily – without shifting his/her attention from one thing to another?2. attend and complete his/her classes consistently?3. participate in group work productively and appropriately?4. exercise good study habits and skills including organizing notes and personal items?5. demonstrate intrinsic rather than extrinsicmotivation in his/her studies?6. devote ample time to his/her school workwithout multitasking?7. stick to his/her program of study activities without getting distracted?
Criterion 5: Career-Direction ConcernTheme: Goal-Directed PerformanceIndicatorsDoes the adolescent/young adult:1. set his/her career priorities thoughtfully?2. pursue a program of study at the tertiary level without shifting from one program to another?3. utilize available resources incompleting school work/requirements?4. remain organized and systematic including following his/her studyroutine without getting distractedand resorting to excuses?5. consult with support service-givers in pursuing his/her program of study and maintaining psychosocialequilibrium?
Criterion 6: Employment ConcernTheme: Focused and Sustained ProductivityIndicatorsDoes the adult:1. devote his/her time to his job diligently?2. complete his/her work on time consistently?3. input more effort and hardwork into his/herjob even without promiseof incentives/rewards?4. work cooperatively – skills-wise andbehavior-wise – with co-workers?5. stick to his/her job without shiftingfrom onejob to another by impulse?6. exercise good leadership as wellas followership?
Criterion 7: Towards Raising a FamilyTheme: Focused and Sustained Sense of ResponsibilityIndicatorsDoes the adult:1. remain faithful to his/her partner?2. assume obligations for rearing and raising his/her children responsibly and properly?3. spend quality time with his/her family through focused social/recreational/study activities?4. serve as a role model of patience, impulse control, sense of workclosure,and conscientiousness? 5. inspire his/her children to achieve the best they can?6. plan a future for his/her familyrather than just live each day?
We can clearly glean from the conceptual model the uniqueness of each child with AD/HD. Each one will have his own pattern of success phase by phase. Each one will be accountable for his own achievement in life in terms of the specified phase-by-phase indicators. With this life-span conceptual model, anindividual can chart and follow through how much he hasactualized himself and howmuch more he can enhancehimself toward self-fulfillment!