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How has legislation affected the classroom? Education that is equal, free, and appropriate is now within the reach of persons with disabilities. History of Special Education: The Law & Special Education. 19 th century

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history of special education the law special education
How has legislation affected the classroom?

Education that is equal, free, and appropriate is now within the reach of persons with disabilities

History of Special Education: The Law & Special Education
history of special education
19th century

Horace Mann and the common school ideal and revival are probably the best known as the most important factors in developing the American public educational system. Horace Mann in the 19th century was concerned with reforming the colonial education system of mostly private and religious schools considered only for the elite and middle class. The common school ideal and Mann’s common school revival ascertained the equality of all citizens, and mass education for all.

Institutions emerged for individuals with disabilities or special needs, instead of alignment with the common schools.

20th century

In 1909 there was legislation regarding the compulsory school attendance for some individuals with exceptionalities. Mainly these laws were in a few states (five, one includes Ohio) specifically for the deaf and blind.

Compulsory school laws begot special classes in public schools (community-based services versus institutions).

1910: A White House Conference on Children was held and one of the main goals were developing and establishing remedial programs for children with disabilities.

1920’s & 1930’s were periods of universal acceptance of special classes (segregated classes for persons with disabilities).

1940’s: Over 100 laws existed regarding the education of students with disabilities, and approximately 39 states had basic special educational laws (albeit mandatory or permissive) by the early 1950’s.

1950’s were a pivotal time in advocating for the education of individuals with disabilities

1954: Brown vs. Board of Educationwas passed and its outcome became the springboard for civil rights issues regarding the education of individuals with disabilities.

Brown indicated equal protection under the law for all citizens based upon the 14th amendment. This ruling declared that you cannot deny equal protection to citizens and segregate on the basis of unalterable characteristics such as race or disability.

History of Special Education
slide3
1958: The Expansion of Teaching . . . for the Education of the Mentally Retarded Child Act. The Education of the Mentally Retarded Child Act focused on training teachers to work with students with mental retardation. In 1958, this specific legislation is the first significant legislation for persons with disabilities at the federal level !

1960’s: Key legislation was The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965

This act provided for improving educational opportunities for certain categories of students. These students were considered to be disadvantaged and included students with disabilities. This act established the Bureau of the Handicapped Children and Youth at the federal level, and provided funding to institutions, and state schools, and later local education agencies for the education of individuals with disabilities.

1970’s

Education of the Handicapped Act- Education of the Handicapped Act in 1970 was an amendment to ESEA and is significant for its funding for the education of students with disabilities.

PARC - PARC judicial case in Pennsylvania persons with mental retardation won a case and upheld that schools cannot deny or exclude individuals with disabilities from education, hence advocating for free and appropriate education (FAPE).

Mills- Judicial case> they cannot be denied or excluded from education, thus FAPE again. In addition to FAPE, this case also purported the claim of procedural safeguards, mainly due process.

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of1973-1973 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation act is the first civil rights legislation protecting persons with disabilities.

Education Amendments of 1974-one goal of the Education Amendments was to have states make a goal of providing full educational opportunities for persons with disabilities.

slide4
Education Amendments of 1974, which finally resulted in the Education of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (PL 94-142)

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

Congress passed landmark legislation to re-authorize the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) A.K.A.Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004 on Nov 19, 2004

Signed into law December 2, 2004 by President George W. Bush

Law effective July 1, 2005

Websites regarding the law

http://www.cec.sped.org/cec_bn/briefs.html

http://www.nectac.org/idea/Idea2004.asp

Actual law> http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c108:h.1350.enr:

References

Pulliam & Van Patten (1999) The History of American Education

Winzer (1993) History of Special Education

Yell (1998) The Law and Special Education

EAHCA renamed IDEA

current update

IDEA renamed IDEIA in 2004

ideia defining special education
IDEIA – Defining Special Education
  • Special educationis defined as specially designed instruction, at no cost to the child’s parents, to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability (IDEA). A student with a disability is one who has certain disabilities as identified in IDEIA, and who, because of that disability, need special education and related services.
  • Eligibility based on need (specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability)
  • Where is it provided?(schools, homes, hospitals, institutions)
  • Components (individualized instruction and related services)
    • Individualized instruction: instruction necessary to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability.
    • Related services: services necessary to assist the student to benefit from special education. e.g. speech therapy, physical therapy)
  • Categorical (have a disability) & functional approaches (disability cause the student to need specially designed instruction)
  • Spans birth to 21(Part B: 3-21; Part C: birth to 2)

special education is a service

rather than a place where they are sent

- Congress (1997)

disability categories
Autism

Deafness

Deaf-blindness

Hearing

Mental retardation

Multiple disabilities

Orthopedic Impairment

Other Health Impairment

Serious Emotional Disturbance

Specific Learning Disability

Speech or Language Impairment

Traumatic Brain Injury

Visual Impairment, including Blindness

Disability Categories

Functional

Categorical

http://www.nichcy.org/Disabilities/Categories/Pages/Default.aspx

high incidence exceptionalities
High Incidence Exceptionalities
  • ...means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:

(a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.

(b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

(c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

(d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

(e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

    • What am I? Emotional Disturbance
    • Ranking: 4th
  • ..means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
    • What am I? Speech or language impairment
    • Ranking:2nd
  • ..means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
    • What am I? specific learning disability
    • Ranking: 1st
  • means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
    • Who am I? mental retardation
    • Ranking: 3rd
six principles governs students education
Least restrictive environment – (‘inclusion principle’- in favor of educating the student with students who do not have disabilities & students with disabilities must have access to the general curriculum)

notion that all children with disabilities be educated with students without disabilities to the maximum level appropriate for that child)

Setting aside inclusion > only if student can not benefit from being educated with their peers ONLY after the school has provided the student with supplementary aids and services. In that event the school may serve the student in a less inclusive program.

Continuum of services> schools must offer a range of services such as general education, resource rooms, special classes, special schools, homebound services, hospitals, and institutions (residential or long-term care)

Procedural due process

When school’s do not carry out IDEIA’s principles

When schools and parents disagree on the type of special education that is appropriate

Informed consent

Right to examine all educational records

Seek an independent educational evaluation

Right to a hearing to resolve differences

Resolution (try to settle differences)

Mediation

Due process hearing (administrative quasi-judicial hearing)

Parent-student participation

E.g. parents being members of the IEP team

Access to school records and control over who has access to those records

Zero reject (no exclusion of student from school – receiving a Free and Appropriate Public Education or FAPE)

Nondiscriminatory evaluation: purpose isto determine if your child has a disability and the types of services he or she needs

unbiased evaluation> use of a variety of assessments

no single instrument used as sole basis of evaluation

may be requested by a parent, SEA, LEA, or another state agency

Assessment is not discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis

Administered by trained and knowledgeable professionals

Administered in a language appropriate for the student

Parental notice and consent (written consent before evaluation)

If parents do not consent - use mediation or due process

Screening (administer tests to all students to determine who needs further testing

pre-referral (help to teachers ; the use of interventions before considering referral to special education)

referral (formal written request for a student to receive a nondiscriminatory evaluation)

evaluation

Appropriate education (an individualized education program-IEP OR Individualized Family Services Plan)

(IEP: 3 -21 yrs; IFSP: 0-2 yrs; “notion of an individually tailored plan for every child with a disability”)

Six principles (governs students’ education)

inclusion principle

get sued?

iep components special education service components
Individualized Education Program

Based on student’s evaluation

Developed by a team (IEP team- collaborative decision making)

Foundation for student’s appropriate education

Review once a year or at parent or teacher request

Content (also see blank STATE IEP)

Present levels of performance

Goals, benchmarks, objectives

Special education and related services and supplementary aids and services

Modifications in state and district wide assessments

Transition plans

How progress will be measured & how parents will be informed

Related Services

Definition of related services

Appropriate Education

IEP Components --Special Education Service Components
  • Audiologists
  • Diagnostic/ evaluation staff
  • Counselors
  • Work-study coordinators
  • Vocational education teachers
  • Interpreters
  • Speech therapists (speech language pathologists)
  • Rehabilitation counselors
  • Teachers
  • School Social worker
  • Occupational therapist
  • Physical therapist
  • Recreation & therapeutic specialists
  • Teacher aids
  • Physical education teachers
  • Supervisors/administrators
  • Psychologists
slide10

Generally more males (66%) identified and receive services than females (33%)

  • Males outweigh girls in LD and ED category
  • Gender-disproportionate representation > why?
  • 369,596 infants and toddlers rec’d services (2.2% of U.S. infants’ and toddlers’ population)
  • 670,750 preschool - ages 3-5 rec’d services (5.8% of the U.S. preschool population)
  • 6 million for ages 6-21 rec’d services (14% have a disability and are receiving special education services)
  • Disproportionate representation of African-Americans receiving SPED services
  • African-American; Latino, & Native-American are underrepresented in gifted programs

Total number

Racial/

ethnic trends

Gender

Family education level

  • 59% of kids w/disabilities parents complete high school

Overview of Today’s Special Education

Disability categories

Socio-economic status

  • (13)
  • Learning disability (1st) > 47.4%
  • Speech or language (2nd) impairments > 18.7%
  • Mental retardation (3rd) > 9.6%
  • Emotional disturbance (4th) > 8%
  • Multiple disabilities
  • Hearing impairments
  • Orthopedic impairments
  • Other health impairments
  • Autism
  • Visual impairments
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Developmental delay
  • Deaf-blindness
  • 84% of all students with disabilities are encompassed in the top 4 disabilities

Family income

  • Poverty rate is higher for children w/disabilities than those w/o

Personnel

Labels/

language

Provision of gifted education

Types of providers

  • Audiologists
  • Diagnostic/ evaluation staff
  • Counselors
  • Work-study coordinators
  • Vocational education teachers
  • Interpreters
  • Speech therapists
  • Rehabilitation counselors
  • Teachers
  • School Social worker
  • Occupational therapist
  • Physical therapist
  • Recreation & therapeutic specialists
  • Teacher aids
  • Physical education teachers
  • Supervisors/administrators
  • Psychologists
  • Not a part of federal law (mandated provision), but some states have legislation requiring services for gifted education
  • 6.4% of school age population
  • Females outnumber males

Key findings:

-Use people first (disability is not the superceding characteristic of a person)

Special Education Outcomes/Results

  • Higher dropout rate than those w/o disabilities (twice as likely not to complete high school or college than those w/o disabilities)
  • Low employment rate than those w/o disabilities
  • Low satisfaction with life

Benefits: label qualifies individuals to receive services

Drawbacks: person may be regarded as ‘broken to be fixed’; can segregate students from those w/o disabilities

federal funding of ideia
Federal Funding of IDEIA
  • Money granted to state and local education agencies (SEA’s & LEA’s) by Congress to assist with educating students with disabilities (0-21)
  • State and local contributions are also necessary (as federal money is a supplement)
  • In 2002-2003, 7.5 billion spent on special education by federal government
  • Educating a student with a disability is 1.91 times greater than for a student in general education
thinking about learning disabilities an analysis
Thinking about Learning Disabilities-An Analysis
  • Look at and analyze the learning disabilities checklist below. What areas do students with learning disabilities often experience difficulty in?
    • http://www.ncld.org/images/stories/Publications/Forms-Checklists-Flyers-Handouts/ldchecklist.pdf
      • Gross and Fine Motor Skills
      • Language
      • Reading
      • Written language
      • Math
      • Social/Emotional
      • Attention
      • Other
slide13

Criteria:

  • Inclusion- have a disorder and it must manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, speak, read, write, spell, and/or do mathematical calculations
  • Exclusion- can not be the result of other disabilities or socioeconomic conditions (e.g. poor instruction, cultural, environmental, or economic disadvantage)
  • Need – adversely affects education/impede learning

General facts

Causes

Characteristics

  • Sam Kirk, 1963 coined term LD
  • Includes perceptual disorders, dyslexia, brain injury, developmental aphasia (difficulty with language)
  • Neurological (CNS dysfunction-differences in brain activity and brain hemispheres)
  • Hereditary (e.g. speech/language; reading; spelling)
  • Teratogenic/environmental (lead paint, crack cocaine, alcohol; parents who are less likely to read to their children)
  • Avg/above avg intelligence
  • Low academic achievement
  • 30% diagnosed with ADHD
  • 6 characteristics:
  • Reading (most significant problem; deficient language skills)
  • Written language (handwriting, spelling, sentence structure, text structure, word usage, and composition)
  • Math (lack of ability to do math functions)
  • Memory (difficulties with short-term and long-term memory)
  • Metacognition (how you monitor your thinking)
    • Lack skills in metacognition > learning strategies to direct and control their own thinking
  • Behavioral;/social/emotional (experience social rejection; low rates of social acceptance; poor self-concept; unmotivated; lack interpersonal skills; difficulty with social cues; learned helplessness)
  • Higher levels of self-esteem after receiving the diagnosis of LD
  • Condition is heterogeneous
  • Occur across life span (lifelong condition)

dyslexia

Learning Disabilities: disorder in 1 or more of the basic psychological processes involved in using language, spoken or written, which manifest itself in imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math calculations

dysgraphia

dyscalculia

Prevalence

  • Most prevalent of all disabilities
  • 47.4 % of special education population
  • No concern for disproportionate representation of African-American or Latino students

Success due to luck, will expect failure and often give up

types of specific learning disabilities
Types of Specific Learning Disabilities
  • Dysgraphia – writing disability
    • Difficulty with handwriting (Dysgraphia)
      • Unsure of right or left handedness
      • Poor or slow handwriting
      • Messy and unorganized papers
      • Difficulty copying
      • Poor fine motor skills

_ Resource

      • http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dysgraphia/dysgraphia.htm
      • http://www.interdys.org/ewebeditpro5/upload/Understanding_Dysgraphia_Fact_Sheet_12-01-08.pdf
  • Dyscalculia- difficulty with mathematical functions
    • Resource
      • http://www.dyscalculia.org/
    • Difficulty with math (Dyscalculia)
      • Difficulty counting accurately
      • May reverse numbers
      • Difficulty memorizing math facts
      • Difficulty copying math problems and organizing written work
      • Many calculation errors
      • Difficulty retaining math vocabulary and/or concepts
  • Dyslexia – difficulty with reading, spelling, and writing
    • A Greek term that means poor language
    • Difficulty with oral language
    • Difficulty with reading
    • Difficulty with written language
    • Resources:
      • http://www.interdys.org/
for more information
For more Information
  • Dyslexia
    • Go here http://www.interdys.org/FactSheets.htm and open two documents
      • Dyslexia basics
      • Is my child dyslexic
  • Dysgraphia
    • http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/dysgraphia/dysgraphia.htm
      • NINDS Dysgraphia Information Fact Sheet
  • Dyscalculia
    • http://www.ldonline.org/article/Dyscalculia?theme=print
      • What is Dyscalculia?
nondiscriminatory evaluation
Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
  • Screening: administering tests to all students to identify which students seem to need further testing to determine whether they qualify for special education
  • Prereferral: (including response to intervention): providing more intensive instruction for students who are not making expected progress in order to prevent the need for referral, a full nondiscriminatory evaluation, and possible placement in special education
  • Referral: submitting a formal written request for a student to receive a full nondiscriminatory evaluation.
  • Nondiscriminatory evaluation: adhering to the safeguards of the full evaluation process; collecting and gather data from various sources.
slide17

Nondiscriminatory evaluation

  • Nondiscriminatory Evaluation:
    • 2 purposes
      • Determine whether a student has a disability or not
      • If the student has a disability, then to identify special education and related services the student will receive.
  • Information gathered is necessary to plan an appropriate education for the student and determine where the student will be educated.

The Process: In Action

  • Screening(e.g. work samples, group IQ and achievement tests; vision and hearing screenings; Observation (by teacher and parents)
  • Pre-referral (interventions implemented, but student continues to experience difficulty; includes response to intervention)
  • Referral (referral form submitted)
  • Nondiscriminatory evaluation
    • individualized IQ (a measure of learning aptitude > IQ tests mean IQ scores may predict school achievement; IQ scores measure behaviors already learned in an attempt to predict future learning)
    • individualized achievement tests (test what the student has learned)
    • Curriculum-based assessment (e.g. classroom quizzes/tests)
    • Behavior rating scale (description presented and informants express their agreement with the description by selecting one of a series of ratings)
    • Anecdotal record/Direct observation (observes student and writes down everything that occurs; Antecedent Behavior Consequence -ABC recording)
    • ecological assessment (analyzes the total learning environment > interactions, methods of presentation, materials, physical environment)
    • portfolio (Purpose is a collection of different measures over time that show accomplishments or improvements or lack of >e.g. work samples, permanent products, test results from a variety of instruments)
direct instruction
Resources:

http://www.adihome.org/phpshop/members.php

http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/methods/models/direct/

Simply put, Direct Instruction (DI) is a system of teaching.Direct Instruction is based on Zig Engelmann's theory that children can learn at an accelerated rate if educators deliver instructions that are clear, are able to predict likely misinterpretations and therefore reduce confusion, and assist in forming generalizations.It is a highly structured, intensive teaching program that aims to absolutely prepare the educator in such a way that all children learn to 100% mastery of the subject.

From The Association for Direct Instruction website

Direct Instruction
  • Systematic, active, or explicit teaching; structured lesson with student practice and teacher feedback
direction instruction
Direction Instruction --
  • Systematic, active, or explicit teaching; structured lesson with student practice and teacher feedback
  • Objectives. The objectives or purpose of each lesson. Students need a road map of where they are going and why.
  • Review. Review prior learning before presenting new information.
  • Motivation. Motivate the student to attend the lesson. Consider using an intriguing question, an anecdote, a joke, or a challenging riddle.
  • Transition. Provide connections to help students integrate old and new information.
  • Clarification. Break down a large body of information “Chunking”
  • Scaffolding. Step-by-step practice and well-crafted questions support and encourage student learning.
  • Examples. Give several examples and illustrations to explain main points and ideas.
  • Directions. Give directions distinctly and slowly.
  • Enthusiasm. Demonstrate personal enthusiasm for the academic content. Make it clear why the information is interesting and important.
  • Closure. Close the lesson with a brief review or summary.

Direct Teaching

  • Daily Review: At the beginning of the lesson, teachers review prior learning.
  • Anticipatory set: This is also known as a grabber and is a way to get students’ attention and interest.
  • New material: Teachers begin by letting students know the objectives to be attained.
  • Guided practice. Students use new skills and knowledge under direct teacher supervision.
  • Specific feedback
  • Independent practice: similar to guided practice, except that students work by themselves at their seats or at home.
  • Weekly and monthly reviews
slide21

An advance organizer is information that is presented prior to learning that can be used by the learner to organize and interpret new incoming information

  • http://www.davidausubel.org/

David Ausubel, An American Psychologist

learning strategies
Definition:

Techniques, principles, or rules that enable students to learn, solve problems, and to complete task independently

Learn content through instruction in skills necessary to acquire, store, and express content

Focus :

Acquisition of information

Storage of information

Expression or demonstration of knowledge

Learning Strategies

“Teachers are like hairdressers. They know the same style won’t work for everybody.”

learning strategy examples
Learning Strategy Examples
  • Muscle Reading
    • Pry out questions (Preview, Outline, Question)
    • Root up answers (read, underline, answer)
    • Recite, Review, and Review again
  • RAP Paraphrasing Strategy
    • R: read the paragraph
    • A: ask yourself about the main idea and 2 details
    • P: put into your own words
more examples
More examples . . .
  • Error monitoring strategy (a process for detecting and correcting errors in writing)
    • Locate errors in paragraph organization (sentence structure, capitalization, punctuation, spelling, appearance)
    • Ask yourself a series of questions:
      • Does this sentence make sense?
      • Is there punctuation after each statement made?
      • Does the statements in each paragraph flow with the others?
concept map
Concept Map

Category- What is it?

What is it like?

Learning tool

which enables

people to learn

Focus- acquire, retain, and express knowledge

Highlights relationships within the information

Learning strategy

Graphic organizers study guides paraphrasing strategy

mnemonic devices test-taking skills vocabulary strategy

What are some examples?

autism
Autism
  • A neurological disorder: a disorder of the body’s nervous system; brain, spinal cord, or nerves
  • A developmental disability (generally occurs before age 3)
  • Affects a student’s verbal and nonverbal communication, social interaction, and educational performance
  • Highest prevalence of five pervasive developmental disorders
  • There is a spectrum of autism disorders
causes
Causes
  • Historical
    • 1940s – refrigerator mothers (professionals referred to mothers as “refrigerator mothers”)
    • Parents seen as contributors (intelligent people of high socioeconomic status who were “cold”)
    • 1970s – caused by brain or biochemical dysfunction that occurs before, during, or after birth
  • Neurological Disorder
    • Biomedical (genetic, abnormalities in brain development; brain or biochemical dysfunction)
      • Linkage between environmental factors and genes
      • Siblings of a child with autism more likely to have autism than a child w/o a sibling
      • Environmental substances > medications that pregnant women might take early in their pregnancy
pervasive developmental disorders
Autistic Disorder: Affects a student’s verbal and nonverbal communication, social interaction, and educational performance; impairment in social interaction; impairment in communication; restrictive repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV )

Asperger’s : significant challenges in social functioning but do not have significant delays in language development or intellectual functioning

Rett’s Disorder

First reported by Rett in 1966

confusion with autism - particularly in the preschool years

very early development is normal

Head growth then decelerates, usually in the first months of life, and a loss of purposeful hand movements occurs

Motor involvement is quite striking and profound mental retardation is typical

Characteristic hand-washing stereotypes develop

Condition documented primarily in girls

Genetic > found on the MECP2 gene

See Rett Syndrome Association for more information

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

From Vienna (Theodore Heller)

Considered rare

Discovered before autism

Etiology (cause) is unknown (although considered to be a central nervous system dysfunction)

The condition develops in children who have previously seemed perfectly normal. Typically language, interest in the social environment, and often toileting and self-care abilities are lost, and there may be a general loss of interest in the environment. The child usually comes to look very 'autistic', i.e., the clinical presentation (but not the history) is then typical of a child with autism.

Pervasive Developmental Disorder (non-specified)

Also known as PDD

Pervasive developmentaldisorder-nonspecific may be considered when symptoms of the other disorders are not present but there is a considerable difficulty with specific behaviors.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

set of complex disorders that affect the brain. PDDs are characterized by an intense difficulty in social interaction and communication with others.

prevalence
Prevalence
  • Elementary and secondary students have higher rates than preschool students
  • Males outnumber females
  • No variations in the prevalence according to race or ethnicity
  • 2.3% of special education population
characteristics of autism
Characteristics of Autism

7 characteristics:

  • Atypical Language
    • Broad range of language abilities (from no verbal communication to complex communication skills); typically have limited communication skills
    • Delayed language ; usually have language impairments, however, 85% to 90% can learn to speak effectively
    • Echolalia (echoes other people’s language); looking away from speaker instead of making eye contact
  • Atypical Social development
    • delays in social interaction and social skills; lack of peer relationships; impaired nonverbal behavior
    • Theory of Mind (TOM) – do not understand that their own desires, intentions, and beliefs may differ from others> may make it difficult for them to form relationships with others
    • Difficulty empathizing with others’ feelings and emotions
  • Repetitive behavior (involves movements and verbalizations) > used to communicate boredom and agitation or to regulate their levels of awareness
    • Obsessions (persistent thoughts, impulses that create anxiety)
    • Tics (involuntary rapid movements)
    • Perseveration (verbalizations or behaviors)
  • Problem behavior (self-injurious, aggression, tantrums, property destruction)
    • Self-injurious (e.g. pica- eating non-edibles; head-banging; biting; scratching)
    • Aggression ( communicative functions; directed toward others)
    • Savant Syndrome (extraordinary ability in some area)
autism characteristics continued
Autism Characteristics continued . . .
  • Sensory and movement disorders
    • Related to taste/smell, tactile sensitivity, visual/auditory sensitivity, and energy levels
    • Sensory -- 42-88%; most have over-responsiveness;> e,g. noisy classroom, scratchy clothes; some have under-responsiveness
    • Movement (e.g. abnormal gait, posture, eye movements, movements of the face, head, trunk, and limbs; motor clumsiness etc.)
  • Need for Environmental predictability
    • Predictability and structure > can experience anxiety due to change
  • Differences in Intellectual functioning
    • 64%-70% with mental retardation
    • Asperger > higher IQ than Autism; IQ in avg. range)
    • Savant syndrome (extraordinary talents in areas; unusual ability in areas occurs in conjunction with low ability in most other areas)
slide32

General characteristics:

  • Engagement in repetitive activities
  • Stereotyped movements
  • Resistance to environmental change and changes in daily routine
  • Unusual responses to sensory experiences
  • Developmental disability; affects students’ verbal and nonverbal communication; social interaction; and education performance
  • Evident before/ by age 3
  • Highest prevalence of five pervasive developmental disorders

Characteristics

Definition

Causes

  • 7 characteristics:
  • Atypical Language
  • Delayed language
  • (limited communication skills)
  • Echolalia (echoes other people’s language)
  • Atypical Social development
  • delays in social interaction and social skills; lack of peer relationships; impaired nonverbal behavior
  • Theory of Mind (TOM) – do not understand their own desires, intentions,and beliefs may differ from others
  • Repetitive behavior
  • Obsessions (persistent thoughts, impulses that create anxiety)
  • Tics (involuntary rapid movements)
  • Perseveration (verbalizations or behaviors)
  • Problem behavior
  • Self-injurious (e.g. pica- eating non-edibles)
  • Aggression ( communicative functions; directed toward others)
  • Sensory and movement disorders
  • Sensory -- 42-88%; most have over-responsiveness
  • Movement (e.g. abnormal gait, posture, etc.)
  • Need for Environmental predictability
  • Predictability and structure > can experience anxiety due to change
  • Differences in Intellectual functioning
  • 64%-70% with mental retardation
  • Asperger > higher IQ than Autism; IQ in avg. range)
  • Savant Syndrome (extraordinary ability in some area)
  • Historical
    • 1940s – refrigerator mothers
    • Parents seen as contributors
    • 1970s – caused by brain or biochemical dysfunction that occurs before, during, or after birth
  • Neurological Disorder
  • Biomedical (genetic, abnormalities in brain development; brain or biochemical dysfunction)
    • Linkage between environmental factors and genes
    • Siblings of a child with autism more likely to have autism than a child w/o a sibling
    • Environmental substances > medications that pregnant women might take early in their pregnancy

Autism (ch. 11) : impairment in social interaction; impairment in communication; restrictive repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV )

Nondiscriminatory evaluation

Prevalence

Progress in the General Curriculum

  • Observation (medical, parent)
  • Screening (physical exam, psychological eval)
  • Assessment measures
    • IQ, achievement test, adaptive behavior scales, autism-specific scales, direct observation
  • FBA (ecological assessment)
  • Elementary and secondary students have higher rates than preschool students
  • Males outnumber females
  • 2.3% of special education population

UDL

* Positive Behavior Support

* Mnemonic Strategies

*Social Stories

4 types of sentences:

Descriptive

Perspective

Directive

Control

*Promote friendships

  • Inclusion
  • Lowest rates of inclusion in general education classes
  • Barriers to progressing in general curriculum
    • Problem behavior and atypical social development

Diagnosis from physician or team during early childhood years

autism tips
Autism-- Tips
  • Weighted blanket calms students
  • Classroom or other setting requires/may need:
    • Schedules
    • Routines
    • Strategies for accepting change (e.g. know in advance there will be a change)
    • Positive behavior support (replacement behaviors)
    • Additional instruction in appropriate social interaction
      • Social stories
  • weighted vests help with sensory processing and motor planning. The Weighted Vest promotes self-calming

Websites:

http://www.therapyshoppe.com/product.php?cat=4

http://weightedvest.com/info.html

social stories
Descriptive sentences (define where a situation occurs, who is involved, what they are doing, and why)

Perspective sentences (describes internal physical state or desire; also describes others perspective-thoughts, feelings, beliefs)

Directive sentences (describe what is expected as a response (to a cue or in a given situation)

Control sentences (written by student; strategy to re-call info in social story; define own response)

1) Sitting on the Carpet

Sometimes our class sits on the carpet. (descriptive) We sit on the carpet to listen to stories and for group lessons. (descriptive) My friends are trying hard to listen so they can enjoy the story or learn from the lessons. (perspective) It can be hard for them to listen if someone is noisy or not sitting still. (descriptive) I will try to sit still and stay quiet during our time on the carpet. (descriptive)

From http://www.polyxo.com/socialstories/introduction.html#sample

Social Stories

Sample social story

positive behavioral interventions and supports pbis
Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)
  • Strategies for preventing behavior challenges as well as techniques for addressing common and intensive behavior problems
  • Based on 4 elements:
  • Clearly defined outcomes
  • Behavioral and biomedical science
  • Practices demonstrated effective through research
  • Systemic approaches that enhance the learning environment and outcomes for all students
  • Primary prevention
  • Secondary prevention
  • Tertiary prevention
functional behavioral assessment p 311 312 of text
Functional Behavioral Assessment (p. 311-312 of text)
  • Proactive problem-solving and data-based approach to enhancing student’s behavioral outcomes; focuses on remediating a student’s impeding behavior, rearranging environments and changing systems)
  • Included as a part of PBIS in the secondary and tertiary prevention portions
  • Systematic process for gathering information that helps teachers and related service providers determine why a study engages in problem behaviors and how teachers can influence events and circumstances to change these behaviors
    • Problem behavior
    • Antecedents
    • Consequences
    • Functional behavioral problem
    • Replacement behavior
    • Behavior intervention plan
slide37

Asperger’s Syndrome

  • (prevalence less than autism)
  • Challenges in social and emotional functioning, but w/o significant delays in language development and intellectual functioning
  • In contrast to Autistic disorder (Autism), there are no clinically significant delays in language or cognition or self help skills or in adaptive behavior, other than social interaction.
  • Prevalence is limited but it appears to be more common in males. Onset is later than what is seen in Autism, or at least recognized later. A large number of children are diagnosed between the ages of 5 and 9.
  • Motor delays, clumsiness, social interaction problems, and idiosyncratic behaviors are reported.
  • For more info-

Tips for Inclusion

Teachers

1.Carefully structure seating

arrangements and group work.

2. Provide a safe haven.

3. Save the student from himself or herself.

4. Prepare for changes in routine.

5. Use available resources-

make needed accommodations.

6. Connect with each other, parents, Internet support groups, and other groups.

7. Promote positive peer interactions.

8. Capitalize on special interests.

9. Don’t take it personally.

10. Help your classroom become a caring community

From

Safran, J. (2002). Supporting Students with Asperger’s Syndrome in General Education. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34, (5), 60-66.

autism autobiography and adaptations kluth 2004
Autism, Autobiography, and Adaptations (Kluth, 2004)
  • Tips suggested
    • The classroom
      • Consider lighting and sounds
      • Experiment with music as a tool for instruction and support
      • Allow students to have a “safe space” (retreat to a private space)
    • Communication
      • Help students understand language
        • May need help with interpreting figurative language, like idioms, jokes or riddles, metaphors, or phrases with double meaning, and sarcasm
          • Teacher introduces a idiom of the week and a “puzzling language dictionary”
      • Do not seek eye contact
        • Eye contact may be irritating or painful for the student
      • Consider their own tone of voice
        • Whispers are easier to process than loud speech
    • Instruction and teaching strategies
      • Bring interests into curriculum
      • Use visuals
      • Incorporate projects and independent work
    • Testing adaptations (use a range of assessments)
      • Paper and pencil, exams, and quizzes
      • Allow students to choose the testing environment
      • Allow retakes
      • Prepare the student for the test; tell him or her about the content, the setting, and time of the test
      • Provide study guides
      • Give review sessions
      • Allow students to answer questions in a variety of ways (e.g. drawing pictures, writing short essays)