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Answers to Reviewer. Unit 1. 5 characteristics of life. Requires energy Grows Reproduces Contains genetic material Reacts to the environment. Q1. What all cells have in common. Genetic material : DNA and/or RNA Cell /plasma membrane Cytoplasm. Q2. Cell Structure. Cell Structure.

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5 characteristics of life
5 characteristics of life
  • Requires energy
  • Grows
  • Reproduces
  • Contains genetic material
  • Reacts to the environment
q1 what all cells have in common
Q1. What all cells have in common
  • Genetic material : DNA and/or RNA
  • Cell /plasma membrane
  • Cytoplasm
q2 cell structure
Q2. Cell Structure

Cell Structure

Hydrophobic & HYdrophilic

q3 osmosis diffusion active transport
Q3. Osmosis, Diffusion, Active Transport

How materials move across the Cell membrane

Definition

  • Osmosis
  • Diffusion
  • Active Transport
  • Passive Transport
q4 concentration gradient
Q4. Concentration Gradient

HIGH CONCEntration->Low concentration

LOW CONCENTRATION->HIGH CONCENTRATION

Moves AGAINST the gradient

Requires energy in the form of ATP

Active Transport

  • moves ALONG the gradient
  • Doesn’t require energy
  • Diffusion, Osmosis, passive transport
q4 plant cells vs animal cells
Q4. Plant Cells vs. Animal Cells

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

No chloroplast

No cell wall

Vacuole is smaller than plant cells

Centriole-> mitosis, cytokinesis

  • Chloroplast where photosynthesis takes place
  • Cell Wall
  • Large Vacuole
q5 prokaryotes eukaryotes viruses
Q5. Prokaryotes , Eukaryotes, Viruses

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Nucleus, nucleolus

Chromosomes

Cell organelles

Plants, animals

VIRUSES

Non-living

Genetic material

Protein coat

  • No nucleus, genetic material is “naked”
  • Circular plasmid
  • No membranous cell organelles
  • Bacteria, Archaea
q6 dna rna
Q6. DNA, RNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Ribonucleic acid

Found in the nucleus, cytoplasm, three types

mRNA, tRNA, rRNA

Ribose sugar

“uracil” instead of thymine

  • Found in nucleus of eukaryotes, contains genetic information for encoding proteins
  • Deoxyribose sugar
  • Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
q7 transcription
Q7. Transcription

DEFINITION

STEPS

  • DNA-> RNA
q8 translation
Q8 Translation

RNA-> PROTEIN

q10 endoplasmic reticulum
Q10. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • System of folded sacs and channels where translation takes place, proteins are created and where lipids are modified.
q11 rough er soft er
Q11. Rough ER, Soft ER

ROUGH ER

SOFT ER

Modifies, detoxifies lipids

No ribosomes

  • Synthesizes proteins
  • Ribosomes on it
q12 what is the function of the golgi apparatus
Q12. What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
  • Modification, packaging proteins
  • Transport of proteins to the plasma membrane for secretion
q13 photosynthesis
Q13. Photosynthesis
  • Reactants: Carbon dioxide, Water
  • Products: Glucose ( sugar), Oxygen
q14 light vs dark reactions
Q14. Light vs Dark reactions

LIGHT-Dependent

Light-independent ( DARK)

CO2, ATP, NADH, H react

Formation of glucose

  • Water is oxidized
  • Light energy is converted into chemical energy
  • Generates ATP, NADPH,H, Oxygen
q15 cellular respiration
Q15. Cellular Respiration

reactants

products

Carbon dioxide,

Water

Energy-> ATP

  • Glucose
  • Oxygen ( aerobic)
  • No oxygen ( anaerobic)
q16 atp
Q16. ATP
  • Adenosine triphosphate
  • Energy molecule
q17 matrix vs cristae mitochondria
Q17. Matrix vsCristae( Mitochondria)
  • Matrix-> carbohydrates broken down to CO2 and water
  • Cristae-> ATP is produced
q18 polysaccharides
Q18 Polysaccharides
  • monosaccharides
q19 proteins
Q19. Proteins
  • Amino Acids
q20 lipids
Q20. LIPIDS
  • Fatty acids
  • Glycerol
q21 nucleic acids
Q21. Nucleic Acids
  • Nitrogenous bases
  • Sugar
  • Phosphate
  • Ex. DNA, RNA
q22 what are macromolecules
Q22. What are macromolecules
  • Large carbon compounds necessary for life

* Living organisms are made out of C, H, O, N, P, S

  • Polysaccharides
  • Proteins
  • Triglycerides
  • Nucleic Acids
exit test
Exit Test
  • What is the central dogma of molecular biology? What are the organelles involved?

What processes are involved?

  • What is the function of the cell membrane?
  • How does the cell generate its energy?

What processes are involved? Name the types of cells, reactants, products involved.