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Hydrologic Cycle. Water is Ubiquitous!. Biosphere- Water Cycle. Hydrosphere Liquid waters of earth. 1. Oceans 2. Lakes 3. Streams 4. Glaciers. Atmosphere Layer of gases surrounding earth. 1. Clouds 2. Vapor. Earth is a closed system:.

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biosphere water cycle
Biosphere- Water Cycle

Hydrosphere

  • Liquid waters of earth.

1. Oceans

2. Lakes

3. Streams

4. Glaciers

Atmosphere

  • Layer of gases surrounding earth.

1. Clouds

2. Vapor

earth is a closed system
Earth is a closed system:

The water available on Earth , today, is the same water that has always been available and the only water that ever will be available!

fresh water
Fresh Water

≤1 % of Earth’s water is available for the following:

  • Support organisms such as: plants, bacteria, humans
  • Support industry, agriculture
  • Provide a source of recreation
  • Hydropower plants- energy
  • Transportation
  • Habitats
  • Waste processing
earth s water budget
Earth’s Water Budget

How the water is divided among:

  • Ocean
  • Land
  • Atmosphere

Proportions of water

remains relatively

stable on Earth. Only the distribution differs (tropical vsdesert).

water cycle
Water Cycle

The actual path any given water molecule follows in a complete water cycle can be varied and complex and may not follow the exact path shown by a diagram.

water is always on the move
Water is Always on the Move

From Atmosphere to Surface

1. Condensation

2. Precipitation

From Surface to Atmosphere

  • Evaporation

2. Transpiration

3. Sublimation

Sublimation: from solid to gas without melting.

Snow or ice  vapor

evaporation
Evaporation

From liquid to vapor

  • 80% of all water entering the atmosphere originates from the ocean.
  • Transfers energy from the earth’s surface to the air above.

Latent energy: hidden

heat energy

Latere- (Lat.) to lie hidden

water vapor
Water Vapor
  • Odorless, colorless gas that mixes with other gases in the atmosphere like N2 and O2. These gases make up 99% of the atmosphere.
  • The amount of water vapor varies from less than 1% to 4% in the atmosphere.
condensation
Condensation
  • Water vapor cools in the upper atmosphere to form drops or ice.
  • Releases latent heat warming the air.
  • The released heat may trigger storms.
clouds
Clouds

A mass of liquid droplets or frozen crystals.

1. Earth’s water transportation system.

in conjunction with wind

2. Determine how much of earth energy is absorbed.

block solar rays

3. Alters temperature of air on earth’s surface

traps heat on the surface

the process of evaporation and condensation purifies water naturally
The process of evaporation and condensation purifies water naturally.

Evaporation: only the water molecules leave the surface; the dissolved salts and other solids remain behind in solution.

Condensation: when the water vapor condenses again it is pure. It may become contaminated as it falls through the atmosphere: sulfates and nitric oxides( NOx) cause acid precipitation.

precipitation
Precipitation

Water droplets coalesce to form precipitation.

Gravity pulls it to the earths surface.

  • Hail
  • Rain
  • Sleet
  • Snow
precipitation1
Precipitation

Interception: falls on leaves or stems of plants.

Percolation: moves down

into the soil and

ground water.

Runoff: does not infiltrate soil but travels across the surface of land.

ground water
Ground Water

Together ground water and soil water make up .5% of freshwater.

ground water zones
Ground Water Zones
  • Unsaturated- soil and water
  • Saturated- ground water

Vadose: soil moisture

Water table: divides the 2 zones.

zone of saturation
Zone of Saturation

Aquifer- body of earth material that has the ability to hold and transport water.

  • Unconfined- “open” connected to the surface above.
  • Confined- “closed” sandwiched between dense impermeable layer of earth.
groundwater movement
Groundwater Movement
  • Replenished by percolation from zone of aeration downward to zone of saturation.

Recharge zone- where confined aquifer is exposed at the surface.

groundwater flow
Groundwater flow

Seepage:ground water flows to a stream channel, lakes, and wetlands

Hydraulic conductivity- the measure of the ability of a material to transport water.

human connection
Human Connection

United States

Family

water issues
Water Issues

The amount of water on earth remains constant.

World population- 7.111 billion & growing

  • 783 million people do not have access to clean water.
  • 2.5 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation.
  • Demand for food, space, energy and clean water continues to rise.

What can you do?