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The World War II Era. Worldwide Post – WWI Issues. Unsuccessfulness of Treaty of Versailles Caused Anger and Resentment Throughout the World Weimer Republic – Blame for the War Soviet Union – Carved up Russian Empire Did Not Secure a “Just and Secure Peace” Worldwide Depression

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worldwide post wwi issues
Worldwide Post – WWI Issues
  • Unsuccessfulness of Treaty of Versailles
    • Caused Anger and Resentment Throughout the World
      • Weimer Republic – Blame for the War
      • Soviet Union – Carved up Russian Empire
    • Did Not Secure a “Just and Secure Peace”
  • Worldwide Depression
    • The Entire World Was Dealing With the Depression – Not Just the United States
    • London Conference
      • U.S. Leaves & Destroys Success of Conference
      • “Every Country for Itself”
the development of nationalism and dictatorship worldwide

The Development of Nationalism and Dictatorship Worldwide

Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin

Italy – Benito Mussolini

Germany – Adolf Hitler

Japan – Militarists (Hideki Tojo)

the soviet union
The Soviet Union
  • Joseph Stalin (man of steel) Took Over After Vladimir Lenin Died in 1924
  • Made ‘Ideal’ Communist State
    • Economic Goals:
      • Agricultural Growth
      • Industrial Growth
    • Developed ‘Collectives’
      • Government Owned Farms
  • Developed a Totalitarian Government
    • Government Has Complete Control Over Citizens
    • Purged and Eliminated Any Possible Threats and Opponents to Power

Joseph Stalin

the rise of fascism in italy
The Rise of Fascism in Italy
  • Italian Economic Problems
    • Inflation, Unemployment, Strikes
  • Middle and Upper Class Demanded Leader to ‘Save’ Country From Economic Ruin and Communism
  • Mussolini Created the Fascist Party in 1921
    • Interests of the State Above the Interests of the Individuals
  • Mussolini Given Power By Italian King in 1922
    • Known as ‘Il Duce’ (the leader)
  • Crushed All Opponents and Created a Totalitarian State

Benito Mussolini

hitler and nazi germany
Hitler and Nazi Germany
  • Hitler Was a Struggling and Angry WWI Veteran in Weimar Republic
    • Joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI) in 1919
    • Eventually Named ‘Fuhrer’ of Party in 1921
  • Wrote Mein Kampf While in Jail
    • Established Plan of Action for NAZI Party
      • Uniting of All German Speaking People
      • Racial ‘Purification’ in Germany
      • National Expansion (Lebensraum)
  • Depression Eventually Allowed NAZI Party to Become Strongest in Germany & Hitler Was Appointed Chancellor & Dismantled Democratic Principles of Weimar Republic
    • Developed the Third Reich

Adolf Hitler

japanese militaristic beliefs and movements
Japanese Militaristic Beliefs and Movements
  • Reasons Japanese Militaristic Leaders Believed Expansion Was Necessary
    • Western Aspirations
    • Security Reasons
    • Manifest Destiny
      • Free Asian Nations of Western Domination
    • International Provocation
      • Five Power Treaty, Japanese Exclusion
    • Economics
  • Invaded and Took Control of Manchuria in 1931
    • League of Nations Did Nothing

Hideki Tojo

german aggression
German Aggression
  • Hitler Pulled Germany Out of the League of Nations in 1933
  • By 1935 Hitler Began Military Buildup – Complete Violation of Treaty of Versailles
  • Sent Military Troops to the Rhineland
    • Demilitarized Zone According to Treaty of Versailles
    • Owned by France But Controlled by Germany Before WWI
italian aggression
Italian Aggression
  • Mussolini’s Goal – Build ‘His’ New Roman Empire
    • First Focus: Ethiopia
  • Invaded Ethiopia w/ Thousands of Soldiers in 1935 & Conquered by 1936
  • League of Nations Response:
    • Economic Boycott (Slap on the Wrist)

[To the League of Nations] “It is us today. It will be you tomorrow”

Ousted Ethiopian Emperor:

Haile Selassie

the test ground for fascism
The Test Ground for Fascism
  • Spanish Civil War Began in 1936
    • Led by Francisco Franco and Other Spanish Army Officers
  • Western Democracies Remained Neutral But Elected Spanish Government Received Limited Help From Other Volunteers
  • Franco Received Aid From Hitler and Mussolini
    • Troops, Tanks, Fighter Planes
  • Franco is Victorious & Another Fascist Leader in Europe Present

Spanish Fascist Leader

Francisco Franco

slide13

American Response

to Worldwide Aggression

isolationism
Isolationism
  • Americans Clung to Isolationism Just Like in WWI
    • Why:
      • Kellogg – Briand Pact
      • ‘Merchants of Death’ Rumors After WWI
  • Roosevelt Changing Foreign Policy
    • Beginning of Presidency:
      • Recognized Soviet Union
      • Good Neighbor Policy in Latin America
      • Reciprocal Trade Agreements (1934)
    • As Aggression Begins
      • Neutrality Acts
        • 1935 --Prohibited American Citizens From Selling Arms to Belligerents in International War
        • 1936 – Prohibited Trade in War Materials as Well as Loans to Belligerent Countries
        • 1937 – More Tightly Enforced Previous Acts and Included Nations in Civil War
the beginning of hitler s aggression
The Beginning of Hitler’s Aggression
  • Nov. 1937 – Hitler Met w/ Officers & Explained That Germany Needed Land of Neighbors to Grow and Prosper
  • March 1938 – German Troops March Into Austria Unopposed
    • Many Austrians Were German Speaking People
    • Anschluss (Union) With Austria Was Complete
  • Germany Began to Move Troops to Take the Sudetenland (German Speaking Province of Czech.)
    • For: 1) Living Space 2) Natural Resources
  • Munich Conference
    • Germany’s Last Territorial Advance and Claim
    • Beginning of Appeasement Policy
slide17

Rhineland

Sudetenland

the german offensive begins
The German Offensive Begins
  • Hitler Lied @ Munich Conference & Had Eyes on All of Czechoslovakia
    • “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist” – Hitler (March, 1939)
  • Poland Was Next on Hitler’s ‘Wish List’
    • German Speaking People in Poland
    • Were Supposedly Mistreated by the Poles
  • Consequences of Attack on Poland
    • May Bring Soviet Union Into Conflict
    • Declaration of War by France and Great Britain
hitler s allies and friends
Hitler’s Allies and Friends
  • Germany and Italy
    • The Rome – Berlin Axis (1936)
    • Pact Between Hitler and Mussolini
  • Germany and Soviet Union
    • Nazi – Soviet Pact (August, 1939)
      • Nonaggrression Pact – Countries Would Never Attack Eachother
      • Also Secretly Agreed to Divide Up Poland Between Two Countries
    • Bad News for the Rest of Europe
the start of world war ii
The Start of World War II
  • Germany Invaded Poland on Sep. 1, 1939
    • Blitzkrieg (Lightning Warfare)
      • Attack Using All of Germany’s Superior Military Forces
        • Luftwaffe
        • Tanks
        • More Numerous Soldiers
  • Great Britain and France Declare War – Sep. 3
    • Too Late to Save Poland
    • Poland Ceased to Exist in About Two Weeks
  • Soviet Union Invaded From East and Took Territory
the phony war and sitzkrieg
The Phony War and Sitzkrieg
  • Both Sides of the Conflict Were at Ease For Several Months After the Conquering of Poland
    • Maginot Line (French and British)
    • Sigfried Line (German)
    • Blitzkrieg Turned Into Sitzkrieg (Sitting War)

Maginot Line

Sigfried Line

german reactivation of the blitz
German Reactivation of the Blitz
  • Hitler Attacked Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg by May, 1940
    • Hitler’s Excuse: “To protect [those countries] freedom and independence”
  • Hitler’s True Purpose:
    • Build Military Bases Along the Coasts Be Used to Attack Great Britain

German Luftwaffe Fighter Badge

the fall of france
The Fall of France
  • Beginning in May, 1940 – Germany Began its Advance on the Maginot Line and France
    • The French and Allied Forces Put Up Little Defense Against the British Blitz
  • Eventually Nazi Forces Pushed Allied Troops (400,000 Total) to Beaches of Dunkirk
    • Operation Dynamo (May 26 – June 3)
  • Duce Mussolini Entered War and Attacked France From South At the Same Time
  • France Surrendered to Nazi Troops – June 23, 1940
slide28
Marshal Philippe Petain – French Hero – Called Back to Boost French Morale Fighting Against Germany
  • Upon Surrender – Became Leader of Vichy France
    • Tried to Lead Collaborative Government in Southern France
  • Known as the ‘Traitor of France’ – Was Eventually Returned to French and Sentenced to Death by French Government
operation sealion
Operation Sealion
  • Once Hitler Occupied France, The Only Country Remaining in Western Europe for Him to Take Was Great Britain
    • Began the Attack of Great Britain in July, 1940
  • The Battle Was Fought Completely in the Air
    • G.B. Had a Superior Navy So Hitler Believed He Needed Superiority of the Skies (Luftwaffe)
  • Beginning Point for Hitler: 1) Airfields 2) Manufacturing Centers
    • Eventually Changed Strategy and Focused on Cities
    • Eventual Daily & Nightly Raids Over Great Britain
  • RAF Eventually Secured G.B. From German Control (Radar)
    • Germany Pulled Back Operation and Focused on Invasion of U.S.S.R.
the u s in the midst of war
The U.S. in the Midst of War
  • Roosevelt Desperately Tried to Remain Neutral Even When Hitler Was Expanding in Europe
  • Neutrality Act of 1939
    • U.S. Will Sell Weapons on a “Cash and Carry” Basis to Democratic Nations
  • American Response to Battle of Britain
    • Increase in Defense Spending  Huge Air Force & Two Ocean Navy
    • Selective Service Training Act  First Peacetime Draft in American History
slide32

Presidential Election of 1940

Franklin Roosevelt: 449 Electoral Votes

54.7% Popular Vote

Wendell Wilkie 82 Electoral Votes

44.8% Popular Vote

  • Roosevelt Broke Tradition and Ran for 3rd Term as Pres.
  • Candidates Were Very Similar So Many Americans Voted for Candidate They Knew Best
the great arsenal of democracy
“The Great Arsenal of Democracy”
  • After the Election Roosevelt Didn’t Have to Worry About His Critics as Much – America Would Be the ‘Arsenal of Democracy’
    • The U.S. Cannot Remain Neutral When the NAZI Goal is World Domination  The U.S. IS THREATENED
  • The Lend – Lease Plan
    • The U.S. Would Lend or lease Arms and Other Supplies to “Any Country Whose Defense Was Vital to the United States”
    • Is Basically U.S. Economic Entrance into WWII
  • Roosevelt Also Laid Out ‘Four Freedoms’
    • Speech and Expression
    • Religion
    • Freedom From Want
    • Freedom From Fear
keeping america out of the war
Keeping America Out of the War
  • Tripartite Pact (Axis) Signed on Sep. 27, 1940
    • Germany, Italy, Japan
    • Pact For Mutual Defense and Military Support
    • Aimed to Keep the U.S. Out of the War
    • Was the Reason for the Development of U.S. 2 – Ocean Navy
the axis powers continue to expand
The Axis Powers Continue to Expand
  • Germany Invades Northern Africa in Feb. 1941
    • General Erwin Rommel & ‘Afrika Korps’ Arrive w/ Tank Squadrons & Attack Greece and Northern Africa w/ Help of Italian Military
  • Hitler Lied Again – Nazi / Soviet Pact
    • Invaded the Soviet Union in July 1941
      • Operation Barbarossa
      • Laid Siege to Major Soviet Cities
        • Leningrad – 900 Days
    • Germany Was Looking for Lebensraum
    • Took Soviets by Surprise
    • The Americans Actually Helped to Soviets thru Lend – Lease Policy
  • Began American Warfare Against U – Boats in Atlantic

“If Hitler Invaded Hell, the British Would Be Prepared to Work With the Devil Himself”

Winston Churchill on the German Invasion of the Soviet Union

the atlantic charter
The Atlantic Charter
  • Roosevelt Was Basically Planning for War in the U.S., Presuming the U.S Would Be Forced to Enter
  • Roosevelt and Churchill Met on USS Augusta & Created the Atlantic Charter  A Basic Declaration of War Aims:
    • Collective Security, Disarmament, Self – Determination, Economic Cooperation, Freedom of the Seas
    • Declaration Signed by 4/5 of the Human Race
  • The U.S. / German Naval Warfare Continued in the Atlantic & the U.S. Government Allowed Merchant Ships to be Armed
japanese imperialistic aims
Japanese Imperialistic Aims
  • As European Countries Were Tied Up w/ Hitler in Europe – Japan Saw Chance to Expand
    • Invaded China & Other French Military Bases in the Pacific
  • U.S. Response:
    • Embargo (Especially Oil)
  • Japan Saw As Partial War Declaration and Prepared for Attack on the U.S.

Japanese Emperor Hirohito

pearl harbor dec 7 1941
Pearl Harbor – Dec. 7, 1941
  • Japanese Planned Surprise Attack and Did Not Wait For American Military Forces to Build Up and Attack Japan First
  • Two Waves of Attacks
    • 7:55 a.m.
    • 8:50 a.m.
  • Total Losses:
    • 2403 Killed
    • 1100 Wounded
    • 18 Ships Sunk or Destroyed
    • 188 Planes Destroyed
  • Japanese Lose 29 Planes and 64 Men
the american war machine starts again
The American War Machine Starts Again
  • Japan Believed America Would Shudder and Back Down From a Superior Japanese Force
    • America Did Exactly the Opposite and Nationalism Soared
  • Military Mobilization
    • The Selective Service Act Increased & Eventually 16 Million Men & Women Served in WWII
    • Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)
      • Worked in Every Part of Military Service Except Combat
  • Minorities Also Served in Segregated Units and Saw Some Wartime Combat
the government takes control of the economy
The Government Takes Control of the Economy
  • Wartime Production Increased in Factories and Fewer Consumer Products Were Available
    • Prices Looked as they Would Climb Outrageously
  • Office of Price Administration (OPA)
    • Goal: To Fight Inflation
    • How: 1)Freeze Prices on Most Consumer Goods

2) Raised and Extended Income Taxes

      • Encouraged People to Purchase War Bonds
      • Encouraged Rationing (Meat, Shoes, Sugar, Coffee, Gasoline)
  • War Production Board
    • Goal: To Ensure that the Armed Forces and War Industries Had the Resources Needed to Win the War
    • Converted Certain Industries to Wartime Production
slide44
Propaganda Campaign of ‘Rosie the Riveter’ Got Women into the Workforce
  • War Labor Board:
    • Worked to Maintain Standard of Living for Working Americans
the early war for the americans
The Early War for the Americans
  • The Allies Struggled Early in the War
    • Hitler’s ‘Wolf Packs’ Dominated Seas
      • Sunk Millions of Tons of Supplies Headed to Europe
  • Germany Laid Siege to Soviet Union
    • Were Stopped From Taking Moscow and Leningrad by Cold in 1941
    • Attacked Southern Soviet Union in 1942 – Oil Fields
    • Battle of Stalingrad (1942 – 1943)
  • Soviet Union Furious at Allies – Didn’t Open a Second Front to Help Soviets
movement of fronts in europe
Movement of Fronts in Europe
  • Roosevelt & Churchill’s First Plan:
    • Deal With Hitler First, Then Worry About Japan
  • Operation Torch – November 1942
    • Invaded North Africa @ Casablanca Among Other Places
    • Didn’t Believe Allies Had Enough Power to Land in Europe
  • British and American Forces Squeeze German Troops in Northern Africa
    • Battle of El Alamein – Nov. 1942 (Turning Point of Campaign)
  • Germans Surrender in North Africa – May 13, 1943

Erwin Rommel

The “Desert Fox”

slide49

Commander of Operation Torch:

Dwight D. Eisenhower

defeating italy
Defeating Italy
  • Casablanca Conference – January 1943
    • Roosevelt and Churchill Decide:
      • Will Only Take Unconditional Surrender
      • Invasion of Italy to Get to Germany
  • Allied Troops Very Successful & Make Way Up ‘Boot of Italy’
  • The End of Mussolini:
    • Mussolini Was Stripped of Power – July 25, 1943
    • “At this moment, you are the most hated man in Italy”
  • Germany Refused to Let Allies Out of Italy
    • Did Not Want Fighting to Get to Germany
    • Battle of Anzio – Early 1944

Roosevelt and Churchill @ Casablanca

slide51

Purpose of Italian Invasion:

  • Open Mediterranean For Troops and Supplies
  • Diverted German Divisions From Soviet and French Fronts
operation overlord june 6 1944
Operation Overlord – June 6, 1944
  • Combined Allied Offensive to land on Normandy Coast of France and Initiate 2 – Front Battle Against Germans and Liberate Europe
  • Hitler Began Constructing the ‘Atlantic Wall’ in 1943
    • Normandy Coast Was Less Fortified
  • Largest Air / Sea Invasion in History on 5 Beaches
    • Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno, Sword
  • Consisted of 5,000 Ships and 150,000 Men
  • Operation Fortitude – The Ultimate Deception
the beginning of the end for hitler
The Beginning of the End For Hitler
  • Successful D-Day Landing Allowed Allied Troops to Enter Europe (Despite Huge Casualties)
    • Germans: 30,000 Dead & 80,000 Wounded
    • Americans: 29,000 Dead & 106,000 Wounded
  • Liberated Paris in August, 1945 and Continued to Liberate Countries in Western Europe
  • Allied and Soviet Forces Pushing Germany Back Within Borders
    • Operation Bagration – Soviet Attack From East
    • Battle of Kursk – Largest Tank Battle in History (Soviet Victory)
    • By March, 1944 – Soviets Enter Poland and Don’t Allow Germans to Move Troops to Western Front
the battle of the bulge october 1944
The Battle of the BulgeOctober, 1944
  • Hitler Realized What Was Going On and Stockpiled Weapons For One Last Attack to Defend German Homeland
    • Goal: To Capture Port of Antwerp to Destroy Supply Line
  • Attacked and Split U.S. and British Lines w/ Tanks and Forced Line to ‘Bulge’
    • Hitler Believed Lines Would Break and Split, but Eventually Troops Secured Lines and Nothing Changed in Lines of Europe
  • Was Basically the End for Germany
    • Lost Most of Supplies: Men, Tanks, Airplanes & Morale
the surrender of germany
The Surrender of Germany
  • The Germany Military Was in Shambles w/ No Supplies and the Economy Was Destroyed
    • Added: Enemies Closing in and Bombing Homeland Germany
  • Soviet and Allied Troops Began to Liberate Concentration Camps and See What Hitler Had Done
  • Hitler:
    • Made Final Decree to German People:
      • Blamed Jews for Starting War
      • Blamed Generals for Losing War
    • Shot Himself and Wife (Eva Braun) Took Poison – Bodies Burned
  • Dwight Eisenhower Accepted Unconditional Surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945
    • V – E Day
slide62

Unfortunately for Franklin Roosevelt, He Never Got to See V-E Day

  • He Died of a Stroke in Warm, Springs Georgia on April 12, 1945
  • Harry S. Truman Was Sworn in the Next Day as the 33rd President of the United States
losses while dealing with hitler
Losses While Dealing With Hitler
  • The Allies Suffered Many Losses While Dealing With Hitler in Europe
    • Doolittle Raids – Some Recourse from Pearl Harbor
  • Americans Withdraw From Many Pacific Islands Under Leadership of Douglas MacArthur
  • Some Forces Withdrew and Were Captured Near Bataan
    • ‘Bataan Death March’

Photo of the Bataan Death March

the battle of the coral sea may 1942
The Battle of the Coral SeaMay, 1942
  • The Japanese Had Control of Almost the Entire South Pacific and Were Now Moving South Toward Australia and New Zealand – Especially Now the Solomon Islands in the Coral Sea
  • U.S. Intelligence Reports Japanese Carriers Moving to Coral Sea and Sends USS Yorktown and USS Lexington
  • Five Day Battle Fought Entirely With Airplanes From Carriers
  • Significance
    • Japanese Suffered Defeat For First Time in War
    • Japanese Invasion / Conquest of Australia Stopped
the battle of midway june 4 5 1942
The Battle of MidwayJune 4 – 5, 1942
  • The Japanese Next Focus Was on Midway Island
    • Just Northwest of Hawaii
    • Goal: To Eliminate American Fleet in the Pacific
  • U.S. Planes Spot Japanese Carriers on Way to Island and Bomb Before Planes Can Get Off Deck
  • Is Great Victory for American Military
    • Some Said it Avenged Pearl Harbor
    • Protected West Coast From Attack

Admiral Chester Nimitz

Commander of Naval Forces in the Pacific

the march to japan begins
The March to Japan Begins
  • After Hitler Was Stopped, Allied Forces Could Focus on Japan
    • Started the ‘Island Hopping Campaign’
    • Allied Forces Had to Dislodge Japanese Control From Every Controlled Island in the Pacific
  • Began @ Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands
    • Focus on Henderson Field (Muddy Airstrip)
    • Japanese Couldn’t Re-Supply Troops
  • American Submarines Did Not Allow Japanese Military to Move Troops Where Needed to Attacked Islands
slide71

Nimitz and MacArthur Planning for the Island Hopping Campaign

  • MacArthur in Charge of Ground Attacks
  • Nimitz in Charge of Naval Attacks
  • The Victories @ Midway and Coral Seal Allowed For Campaign to Begin, Pushing Japan Back to Confines of Formed Boundaries
moving through the islands
Moving Through The Islands
  • American Troops Invaded and Retook the Philippines and Liberated Prisoners of War
  • Next Step: Iwo Jima
    • Island Close Enough to Use as Base For Heavy Bombers to Attack Mainland Japan
    • One of Most Heavily Fortified Islands w/ About 20,000 Troops in Tunnels and Underground Fortifications
  • Focal Point of Battle on Island is Mt. Sirabachi
  • Results: Americans Take Island w/ Huge Casualties
    • Over 6,000 American Deaths
    • ¼ of All Medals of Honor of WWII Are Given @ Iwo Jima
slide74

American Troops @ Mt. Sirabachi

  • Photo Taken by Joe Rosenthal
the battle of okinawa june 1945
The Battle of OkinawaJune, 1945
  • The Island of Okinawa Was the Final Major Island Allied Forces Had to Take Before Mainland Japan
    • Island Had 4 Major Airstrips for Operation Downfall
  • Was the Largest Land – Air – Sea Battle in History
  • Results:
    • Americans Successfully Take Island w/ Many Casualties
    • Japanese Lose Over 100,000 Troops Many of Who Commit Seppuku
  • Told Story for Future Possible Invasion of Japanese Mainland
japanese protection of homeland
Japanese Protection of Homeland
  • Throughout the Island Hopping Campaign, The Japanese Became More and More Desperate
    • 4/22/1943 – Japan Announced Captured American Pilots Will Be Given “One Way Tickets to Hell”
    • 10/25/1944 Begin to Use Kamikaze Attacks
      • Eventually Use 2,257 Kamikaze Attacks Throughout the War
finding a way to end the war
Finding a Way to End the War
  • The Potsdam Conference – July, August, 1945
    • Allied Meet and Warn Japan That They, “Must surrender or suffer complete and utter destruction”
    • Surrender Must Come w/ Emperor Stepping Down
  • Planned Invasion of Japan
    • The Allies Saw How the Japanese Were Willing to Protect Islands Around Japan – Didn’t Know What They Would Do @ Homeland
    • Churchill Predicted Invasion of Japan Would Cost 1 Million American and ½ Million British Lives
  • Allies Looked for Another Way to End War
the development of the atomic bomb
The Development of the Atomic Bomb
  • Roosevelt Created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) in 1941
    • Developed New Technologies – Radar, Sonar, Etc.
    • German Scientists Now in U.S. Warned About German Capacity to Create New Weapon of Mass Destruction
  • The Manhattan Project
    • Top Secret American Project to Develop an Atomic Bomb
      • Over 600,000 People Worked on Development of Bomb, Yet No One Knew What They Were Doing
      • Total Cost: $1.8 Billion

Director of Research for the Manhattan Project:

J. Robert Oppenheimer

results of the manhattan project
Results of the Manhattan Project
  • Produced Three Atomic Bombs
    • 1) Gadget 2) Little Boy 3) Fat Man
  • Test to See if Bombs Worked
    • Where: Alamogordo, New Mexico – AKA Trinity Test Site
    • Result: Bomb Worked
      • Blast Equal To 20,000 Tons of TNT & Flash of Explosion Seen 180 Miles Away
  • Areas of Destructiveness:
    • ½ Mile: Everything Vaporized (3000-4000 Degrees C)
    • 1 Mile: 90% Casualties – All Buildings Destroyed
    • 1.75 Miles: 65% Fatalities – Rivers Flow Counter Current
    • 2.5 Miles: 50% Fatalities – Burn Damage -- Suffocation
slide82

Little Boy

Fat Man

the question of nuclear warfare
The Question of Nuclear Warfare
  • A Huge Debate Developed Now About the Use of Nuclear Warfare That Hitler Was Defeated
  • Arguments For Use:
    • Fear of U.S.S.R.
    • Destruction of Japan
    • Save American Lives
  • Arguments Against Use
    • Ethical / Humanity Reasons
    • Einstein Was One of the Biggest Opponents of Using
the bombs at work
The Bombs at Work
  • Truman Ultimately Decided to Use the Bombs Against Japan as They Refused to Surrender
  • Aug. 6, 1945 – B-29 Bomber Flown by Paul Tibbets
    • Dropped ‘Little Boy’ Over Hiroshima
      • 66,000 Killed Instantly & 200,000 Later
  • Aug. 9, 1945 – B – 29 Bomber Named “Bock’s Car”
    • Dropped “Fat Man” Over Nagasaki
    • More Powerful Bomb But Fewer Casualties
      • 39,000 Killed Instantly & 100,000 Later
the surrender of japan
The Surrender of Japan
  • Emperor Hirohito Said He Couldn’t Bear to See His People Suffer Any More & Ordered Surrender Papers to Be Drawn Up
  • Japan Surrendered – August 14, 1945 on USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay
    • V-J Day
wwii in review
WWII in Review
  • 46 – 55 Million Dead
  • 35 Million Wounded
  • 3 Million Missing
  • 30 Million Soldiers Dead
    • 300,000 American
    • 23 Million Soviet
  • 6 Million Jews Killed as Part of “Final Solution”
  • 6 Million Others Physically Handicapped
the rebuilding process after war
The Rebuilding Process After War
  • The Yalta Conference
    • Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill Met @ Yalta b/f Germany Surrendered (but Surrender Was on the Way) to Discuss Fate of Postwar World
  • Views @ Conference:
    • Stalin: Punish Germany Harshly
    • Churchill: Complete Opposite
    • Roosevelt: Mediator
      • Break Germany into 4 Military Controlled Sections and Eventually Make Back into Free and Combined Germany
  • Roosevelt Wanted Stalin as Friend
    • To Join in War Against Japan
    • Participate in International Meeting in San Francisco
      • United Nations
the nuremberg war trials
The Nuremberg War Trials
  • A Series of War Trials Were Developed After the War to Punish NAZI Officials for Crimes Against Humanity
    • Result of Evidence Found in Concentration Camps
  • 12 Initial Officials Sentenced to Death and Many Others Sentenced to Jail Terms
  • Principle Established:
    • It is Not an Excuse to “Follow Orders” to Kill Another Human Being
the holocaust
The Holocaust

Holocaust: Systematic Murder of 11 Million People Across Europe – More Than Half Were Jews

the elimination of jews in germany
The Elimination of Jews in Germany
  • The Targeting of Jews
    • Hitler Specifically Targeted Jews for Economic Problems and Defeat in WWI
  • Nuremberg Laws (1935)
    • Stripped Jews of Personal Property, Jobs, and Citizenship
    • Forced Jewish People to Wear Star of David
  • Kristallnacht – Nov. 9 – 10, 1938
    • NAZI Destruction of Jewish Businesses and Synagogues
hitler s final solution
Hitler’s “Final Solution”
  • Hitler’s “Final Solution” Was the Deliberate and Systematic Killing of the Entire Jewish Population (Genocide)
    • Why: Aryans Were a Superior People and the Purity of the Master Race Must Be Preserved
  • Those Who Hitler Condemned:
    • Gypsies, Freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Homosexuals, Mentally Ill, Physically Disabled
  • Forced Relocation:
    • Hitler’s ‘Security Squadron’ or SS Rounded Up Jews and Moved them to Ghetto’s or Segregated Jewish Areas in Poland and then in Other Areas
the final stage
The Final Stage
  • The NAZI’s Developed Concentration Camps, First in Poland, and then Throughout Europe for Holding and Eliminating the Jew’s of Europe
  • Types of Camps:
    • Labor Camps
    • Death Camps
  • Originally Developed for Political Enemies in Germany – Plan Just Shifted to Jews
  • Camps Also Used for Medical Experiments / Research