On Learner-centered classroom instruction. Prof. He Gang East China Normal University 2007-07-31. Questions to address. 1] What is the ultimate goal of classroom instruction in English language teaching? 2] What is the proper relationship between what is taught and how it is taught?
Prof. He Gang
East China Normal University
1] What is the ultimate goal of classroom instruction in English language teaching?
2] What is the proper relationship between what is taught and how it is taught?
3] Why should we focus on the learner? What kind of needs do learners have? What needs could be created or activated? How could such needs be met through CI?
4] Instances of how learner-centeredness could be achieved through teaching reading or /and writing?
1] The ultimate vs immediate goals of EFL classroom interaction;
A. To bring about competent user of English who could a] make or understand utterances that are not just grammatically right, semantically reasonable, but also situationally appropriate and sufficient to achieve the desired goals of verbal communication; b] to enable a learner to speak, listen, read, write and interpret and/or translate; c] by ways of enabling them to effectively cooperate with the instructor in a variety of forms of teacher-student task-based interaction;
B. To educate every individual culturally and socially so that each one will be linguistically equipped with desired qualifications necessary for making a successful living
1] language in speech:
a] Oh, eh, well, why, what, hmm,
b] John is a big boy.
c] Hurry up, or you’ll be late.
d] You are pulling my leg.
e] There you go.
f] Now I declare the meeting open.
g] Peter, Mary is ill.
h] Mom, I am hungry.
i] Tom, do you have five dollars with you?
j] A: China is a great country.
B: That’s true.
2] What is to be taught and how it is taught
a] situationally effective utterances;
b] meaningful and grammatical sentences;
c] speech acts;
d] patterns of thinking and speaking
e] conversational routines and structures
e] knowledge of context
A] Language taught has to be absorbed by the learner through each person’s realization of what it is and how it functions interpersonally
B] A competent user is always a self-conscious learner who clearly realizes what he/she needs while learning a language; a competent user is also aware that new needs could be born any time or on any occasion;
C] Learner-needs are not just personal psychological (confidence, encouragement, success , communication), but socio-cultural;
1] motivation: learners need to be highly motivated to the EFL program and procedure;
2] Interest: a strong bias toward something beneficial /absorbing
3] Encouragement through difficulties;
4] Sense of achievement
5] communicative intention in situated interactions(in and outside class)
Step One: Facilitating situations for students to communicate with simple and useful English (words to do things);
Step Two: Gradual and accumulating success;
Step Three: Basing encouragement on previous success in order to remove psycho-barriers (lack of confidence, misperception)
Step Four: Develop and strengthen interest in task-based interactions , designing and fostering immediate goals (available , attainable) attending to their background knowledge
Step Five: Getting learners highly motivated to immediate tasks or goals that are consistent with the ultimate goals
Reading and writing teaching
A comprehensive view of reading or writing means that each is closely related to other skills , and others can function very positively towards constructing a creative and massively participating classroom interaction between T and S, or S_S interaction;
Creativity means a context for encouraging and rewarding creative efforts, never stopping to ponder and enjoy the satisfaction