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On Learner-centered classroom instruction. Prof. He Gang East China Normal University 2007-07-31. Questions to address. 1] What is the ultimate goal of classroom instruction in English language teaching? 2] What is the proper relationship between what is taught and how it is taught?

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on learner centered classroom instruction

On Learner-centered classroom instruction

Prof. He Gang

East China Normal University


questions to address
Questions to address

1] What is the ultimate goal of classroom instruction in English language teaching?

2] What is the proper relationship between what is taught and how it is taught?

3] Why should we focus on the learner? What kind of needs do learners have? What needs could be created or activated? How could such needs be met through CI?

4] Instances of how learner-centeredness could be achieved through teaching reading or /and writing?

ultimate goals of efl teaching
Ultimate Goals of EFL Teaching

1] The ultimate vs immediate goals of EFL classroom interaction;

A. To bring about competent user of English who could a] make or understand utterances that are not just grammatically right, semantically reasonable, but also situationally appropriate and sufficient to achieve the desired goals of verbal communication; b] to enable a learner to speak, listen, read, write and interpret and/or translate; c] by ways of enabling them to effectively cooperate with the instructor in a variety of forms of teacher-student task-based interaction;

B. To educate every individual culturally and socially so that each one will be linguistically equipped with desired qualifications necessary for making a successful living

the relationships
The relationships

1] language in speech:

a] Oh, eh, well, why, what, hmm,

b] John is a big boy.

c] Hurry up, or you’ll be late.

d] You are pulling my leg.

e] There you go.

f] Now I declare the meeting open.

g] Peter, Mary is ill.

h] Mom, I am hungry.

i] Tom, do you have five dollars with you?

j] A: China is a great country.

B: That’s true.

2] What is to be taught and how it is taught

a] situationally effective utterances;

b] meaningful and grammatical sentences;

c] speech acts;

d] patterns of thinking and speaking

e] conversational routines and structures

e] knowledge of context

why learner centered
Why learner-centered?

A] Language taught has to be absorbed by the learner through each person’s realization of what it is and how it functions interpersonally

B] A competent user is always a self-conscious learner who clearly realizes what he/she needs while learning a language; a competent user is also aware that new needs could be born any time or on any occasion;

C] Learner-needs are not just personal psychological (confidence, encouragement, success , communication), but socio-cultural;

learner needs

1] motivation: learners need to be highly motivated to the EFL program and procedure;

2] Interest: a strong bias toward something beneficial /absorbing

3] Encouragement through difficulties;

4] Sense of achievement

5] communicative intention in situated interactions(in and outside class)

steps to meet such needs
Steps to meet such needs

Step One: Facilitating situations for students to communicate with simple and useful English (words to do things);

Step Two: Gradual and accumulating success;

Step Three: Basing encouragement on previous success in order to remove psycho-barriers (lack of confidence, misperception)

Step Four: Develop and strengthen interest in task-based interactions , designing and fostering immediate goals (available , attainable) attending to their background knowledge

Step Five: Getting learners highly motivated to immediate tasks or goals that are consistent with the ultimate goals


Reading and writing teaching

A comprehensive view of reading or writing means that each is closely related to other skills , and others can function very positively towards constructing a creative and massively participating classroom interaction between T and S, or S_S interaction;

Creativity means a context for encouraging and rewarding creative efforts, never stopping to ponder and enjoy the satisfaction