Review: EUH3206 From Late 19th Century to 1936: New Imperialism, Great Power System Road to WWI WWI and its Aftermath; Paris Peace Conference; Russian Revolution and Civil War Rise of Fascism in Italy and Germany
Readings: • Conan Fischer, Europe Between Democracy and Dictatorship, Chapters 1-6 (relevant sections). • Aspects of Western Civilization, Part II., Chapters 8-12 (relevant sections).
Background material Intellectual/Cultural themes of the 19th century: Positivism – A. Comte, H. Spencer, K. Marx Liberalism – J. Bentham, J.S. Mill Conservatism – E. Burke, B. Disraeli, Joseph de Maistre Socialism/Anarchism/Marxism – Marx/Engels, K. Kautsky, V. Lenin, M. Bakunin, Peter Kropotkin
19th Century Background Social Darwinism – T.H. Huxley, A. Gobineau (Racism) Nationalism – Italy, Germany, Balkan countries Imperialism: Africa (Scramble for Africa) and Asia (Unequal treaties, concessions in China)
Background to WWI • Great Powers and their relative position to one another: Germany, Italy, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. • Alliances of Great Powers: • Triple Alliance (Germany, A-H, Italy), 1882 • Dual Alliance (France, Russia), 1894
Great Powers, cont. • Entente Cordiale (France, Great Britain), 1904. 1907 (France, Great Britain, Russia) • Types of alliances/diplomatic relations between 1879 and 1914? Why were these countries allied? Did these alliances create a web of interlocking commitments which led to war?
Great Powers, cont. • Causes of WWI: Diplomatic ties; militant nationalism; imperial tensions (Morocco, Bosnia, Balkan Wars, Military planning). Moroccan crises of 1905 and 1911 Bosnian crisis, 1908 Balkan wars, 1912-1913 Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
First World War, 1914-1918 • How did war start? • What was war about? • What kind of war was it? (Stalemate/trench warfare, Total War, etc.) • Role of propaganda • Role of Home Front
First World War • What were the major turning points of the war: • 1914 – Battle of Marne • 1915 -- Unrestricted submarine warfare, Gallipoli • 1916 -- Verdun, Somme • 1917 -- Russia leaves the war US joins it.
End of War • 1918 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, German Spring offensive. • Who won the war? Why did they win? • Expectations of victors? Punish Germany, establish a “new” Europe based on Wilson’s 14 points (issued in January, 1918).
Russian Revolutions, 1917 • Russia during WWI and in the post-war era: • Political/Social Background: • Types of political parties on the left: Marxists (Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, SRs, Anarchists)
Russian Revolutions, 1917- • Russian Revolution of March, 1917 – Provisional Government est., Soviets share power with new PG. • October, 1917 – Storming of the Winter Palace, beginning of Bolshevik-led revolution • Revolution and Civil War, 1918-1921 • Opposing sides: Reds (Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, SRs, Anarchists) vs. Whites (monarchists, military, liberals, traditionalists)
Reasons for Bolshevik victory? • Party organization – “What is to be done?” • Cheka – created 1917 • Propaganda (Agit-prop) -- Posters, lectures, etc. • Revolutionary Utopia: Winning over the people: ending the war, promising a new world… • Leadership (Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bukharin). • Red Army -- Trotsky
Aftermath of WWI • Significance of Paris Peace Conference, 1919-1920 (winners and losers, League of Nations, treaties, etc.) • Treaties: Versailles, Trianon, Saint Germain, Sevrès. • New Europe? What did it look like? What had changed? (Borders, new countries, new political systems, continuation of “old” politics…) • New Countries: Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Balkan states (Yugoslavia), Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Poland.
Aftermath of war, 1919- • Pros- and Cons- of Post War European Settlement: Diplomatic arrangements? Economic conditions? Political conditions in Victorious countries/Vanquished countries. • Fate of Imperialism? (Middle East, Africa, Asia)
Fate of Great Power system Italy in the post-war era: rise of fascism (causes and consequences, 1919-1934) What is fascism? Major ideological tenets: Statism, Corporatism, Anti-Enlightenment, Belief in Violence… Role of Mussolini (Il Duce)?
Germany Germany in the post-war era: rise of Nazism, Weimar interlude. Communist uprising, 1919 Right-wing coup attempts, 1920,1923. Define Weimar Republic (dates?) and know about political, economic, social circumstances which gave rise to extremist movements.
Weimar Germany, cont. • Ideological/Political features of Nazi movement to 1934? • Fate of Left-wing movements in Weimar? • Cultural legacy of Weimar (Bauhaus/Mies van der Rohe, W. Gropius; Art/Otto Dix, Georg Grosz, Kirchner, Literature/M. Remarque, H. and T. Mann)
Fascism in Italy and Germany, 1922-1934 • Contrasts/comparisons between Fascism and Nazism. • National and international policies pursued by Italians and Germans in interwar period?