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Please sit with your STC380 teammates Review Cold Call: 5 key learnings from last time Marketing Concepts in Commercialization of High Technology Session 7 Marketing Mix: Promotion/Communication Strategy Participation High Quality Participation (In class/On line)

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review

Please sit with your STC380 teammates

Review

Cold Call:

5 key learnings from last time

marketing concepts in commercialization of high technology

Marketing Concepts in Commercialization of High Technology

Session 7

Marketing Mix: Promotion/Communication Strategy

participation
Participation
  • High Quality Participation (In class/On line)
    • Contributes to others’ learning
    • Provides helpful feedback
    • Brings in/links elements of reading or lecture
    • Links reading/lecture to personal experience (limits)
    • Stays on topic/task
  • Self-monitoring
    • If less than 1 time in-class, censor yourself less.
    • If more than 2-3 times in-class, censor yourself more.
    • If you haven’t done the reading, censor even more
agenda
Agenda
  • Review
  • Lecture/Discuss: Setting a Price, cont.
  • Exercise: Pricing strategies for projects
  • Lecture: The Communications Process
  • Lecture: Introductory Price/Promotion Strategies
  • Lecture: Promotion Mix
  • Exercise: Video Case Study Discussion
  • Lecture: Word of Mouth
  • Exercise: Word of Mouth/Opinion Leaders
  • MPD#3
review5

Review

Kate Mackie, Ph.D. 2001, Center for Lifelong Engineering Education, University of Texas at Austin

overriding goal
Overriding Goal
  • Achieve a commanding position in the market segment(s) served.

Not to compete

in every market segment the product might conceivably fit

Davidow, p. 116

select the pricing objective
Select the Pricing Objective
  • Maximize current profit
  • Maximize market skimming
  • Maximize sales growth (penetration)
  • Product/quality leadership
session 7 objectives
Session 7 Objectives
  • Finish pricing strategy
  • Describe the communications process and its implications for effective message design.
  • Describe six types of communications objectives and their relationship to the elements of the promotion mix.
  • Describe the elements of the promotion/ communication mix
  • Use a promotional calendar to assure the development of integrated marketing communications.
customers are less price sensitive if

Pricing Sensitivity Factors

Customers are less price sensitive if:
  • the product is highly innovative
  • the product is more distinctive than competition
  • there are few substitutes
  • product is used in conjunction with assets previously bought
  • product is assumed to have high quality
3 estimate costs
3. Estimate Costs
  • Variable Costs
  • Fixed Costs
  • Other Cost Concepts
    • Target Costing
    • Experience Curve
select a pricing method
Select a Pricing Method
  • Mark-up Pricing - “Cost Plus”
mark up or cost plus pricing
Mark-Up or Cost-Plus Pricing
  • Mark-up = % profit based on cost

Selling Price - Cost

Cost

  • To set price based on a desired mark-up

(also called Cost-Plus . . . Cost + some %)

  • Cost = $25; Desired mark-up = 20%
  • $25 x 1.20 = $30.00
slide14
1) 10 lawns, weekly (200 lawns)

2) 10 lawns, every 2 wks (100 lawns)

3) 5 lawns, every 2 wks ( 50 lawns)

4) 10 lawns, 2 times/wk (400 lawns)

5) 20 lawns, 2 times/wk (800 lawns)

$ 9.00

$12.00

$18.00

$ 7.50

$ 6.75

Demand Price/lawn

Example of The “Cost-Plus” Delusion

  • Over priced in weak markets
  • Under priced in strong markets
select a pricing method15
Select a Pricing Method
  • Mark-up Pricing - “Cost Plus”
  • Target Return Pricing
slide16

Target Return Pricing

Gizmo mfg. invested $1MM; wants 20% ROI;

Fixed cost = $300,000; variable cost = $10/unit

Estimate = 50,000 unit sales (therefore, fixed cost/unit = $6). What is the price?

Target-return price =

unit cost + desired return X invested capital

unit sales

Target-return price =

$16 + $200,000 = $20

50,000

select a pricing method17
Select a Pricing Method
  • Mark-up Pricing - “Cost Plus”
  • Target Return Pricing
  • Perceived Value Pricing
determining perceived value
Determining Perceived Value
  • What value is placed on the end result?
  • The cost of alternative solutions to the customer.
  • A function of:
    • Prices of comparable (though not identical) products
    • The “value” (+/-) of the product’s differences vs. the competitive offering
    • The value of the “Whole Product”
device pricing vs whole product pricing
Device Pricing vs. Whole Product Pricing
  • Value of any product to its market is strongly influenced by prices of competitive products.
  • Competitive “devices” are analyzed, but “products” are priced.
  • Product “features” have different values:
    • Customer service
    • Warranties
    • Distribution channels (e.g., convenience)
  • The “sum” of the features makes up the “product”

Moore, p. 110; Davidow, p. 106

slide20

Attribute Standard Premium Added

Offer Offer Value

Quality Impurities<10ppm Impurities<1ppm $1.40

Delivery W/in 2 wks W/in 1 wk .15

System Supply chem. Supply total system .80

Innov. Little R&D sup. High R&D sup. 2.00

Retraining Train initially Retrain on req. .40

Service Through home Locally avail. .25

office

Price $100/lb $105/lb 5.00

Perceived Value Pricing in Chemicals

slide21

Attribute Standard Premium Added

Offer Offer Value

Quality Impurities<10ppm Impurities<1ppm $1.40

Delivery W/in 2 wks W/in 1 wk .15

System Supply chem. Supply total system .80

Innov. Little R&D sup. High R&D sup. 2.00

Retraining Train initially Retrain on req. .40

Service Through home Locally avail. .25

office

Price $100/lb $105/lb 5.00

Perceived Value Pricing in Chemicals

Note: The “Device” is the chemicals. The “Product” includes the device plus. . . .

slide22
The art of pricing depends on determining how much those differences are worth to a market segment.
select a pricing method23
Select a Pricing Method
  • Mark-up Pricing - “Cost Plus”
  • Target Return Pricing
  • Perceived Value Pricing
  • Value Pricing
  • Going Rate Pricing (market price)
  • Reference Pricing (comparison w/substitutes)
select a pricing method24
Select a Pricing Method
  • Mark-up Pricing - “Cost Plus”
  • Target Return Pricing
  • Perceived Value Pricing
  • Value Pricing
  • Going Rate Pricing (market price)
  • Reference Pricing (comparison w/substitutes)
  • Sealed-Bid Pricing
slide25

Sealed Bid Pricing

Company Company Probability Expected

Bid Profit of Award Profit

$ 9,500 $ 100 .81 $ 81

10,000 600 .36 216

10,500 1,100 .09 99

11,000 1,600 .01 16

exercise
Exercise
  • Think about your projects and *one* market segment.
  • What will be your pricing objective?
    • 5 min. alone/10 in teams
  • You have already been examining:
    • Your costs
    • Your competitors pricing/costs
  • What pricing method are you going to use?
    • 5 min. alone/10 in teams
  • Discuss
select the final price
Select the Final Price
  • Desired/Required Distributor Margins
  • Psychological pricing
  • Influence of other marketing mix elements
  • Company pricing policies
  • Impact of price on others

$ 10,000

$ 375.00

$2,000,000

the marketing plan

I. Executive Summary

The Marketing Plan

II. Marketing Situation Analysis

III. Opportunity and Issue Analysis

IV. Objectives

V. Marketing Strategy

Segmentation, Targeting

Differentiation, Positioning

Product

Marketing Mix

Price

Promotion

Positive Word-of-Mouth

Place

VI. Action Programs

VII. Projected Profit-and-Loss

VIII. Controls

slide30

Promotion

  • Personal Selling
  • Trade Shows
  • Events
  • Sales promotion
  • Advertising
    • Message
    • Media
  • Public relations and publicity
communication promotion what is effective
Communication/PromotionWhat Is “Effective”?

?

  • To whom are you going to communicate?
  • What do you want them to
    • Learn?
    • Feel?
    • Do?
  • What are you going to say?
  • Through what vehicles?

?

?

?

response hierarchy models

Awareness

Knowledge

Liking

Preference

Conviction

Purchase

Response Hierarchy Models

Hierarchy-of-

Effects

Model

Cognitive (Thinking)

Affective (Feeling)

Conative (Doing)

exercises coming
Exercises Coming
  • What types of advertising or promotion could you use at each of these steps?
  • How would you measure effectiveness for each of these steps?

e.g., how would you determine if you had awareness in your target? liking? etc.?

communication effects pyramid
Communication Effects Pyramid

5% Repurchase/ regular use

20% Trial

25% Preference

40% Liking

70% Knowledge/Comprehension

90% Awareness

Belch & Belch, p. 208

sample objectives for a new product
Sample Objectives for a New Product
  • Time Period: Six Months.
  • Objective 1: Create awareness among 90% of target audience.
    • Use repetitive advertising in newspapers, magazines, TV and radio programs. Simple message.
  • Objective 2: Create interest in the brand among 70% of target audience.
    • Communicate information about the features and benefits of the brand, i.e., the “support” information from the positioning statement.
  • Objective 3: Create positive feelings about the brand among 40% and preference among 25% of the target audience.
    • Create favorable attitudes by linking with positive elements, and conveying information, promotions, sampling, etc.
  • Objective 4: Obtain trial among 20% of the target audience.
    • Use action-stimulating advertising and promotion such as sampling and discounts.
  • Objective 5: Develop and maintain regular use of product among 5% of target audience.
    • Use continued reinforcement advertising, limited promotions.
response hierarchy models37

Hierarchy-of-

Effects

Model

Awareness

Knowledge

Awareness

Liking

Preference

Conviction

Interest

Evaluation

Purchase

Trial

Adoption

Response Hierarchy Models

Innovation-

Adoption

Model

Cognitive (Thinking)

Affective (Feeling)

Conative (Doing)

exercise38
Exercise
  • What types of advertising or promotion could you use at each of these steps?
exercise39
Exercise
  • What types of advertising or promotion could you use at each of these steps?

2. How would you measure effectiveness for each of these steps?

e.g., how would you determine if you had awareness in your target? liking? etc.?

elements in the communication process40

Encoding

Decoding

Noise

Feedback

Response

Elements in the Communication Process

SENDER

Media

RECEIVER

Message

slide41

Decline

Maturity

Growth

Introduction

Strategies

Product Offer a basic “product” Offer product extensions Diversify brands/models Phase out weak items

Price Try to understand price/ Price to penetrate Price to match or best Cut price

value; Cost-plus frequent; market competitors

skimming vs. penetration

Distribution Build selective Build intensive Build more intensive Go selective: phase

distribution distribution distribution out unprofitable channels

Advertising Build product awareness Build awareness and Build preference; stress Reduce to level needed

among early adopters interest in the mass brand differences and to retain hard-core

and dealers market and benefits loyals

Sales Promotion Use heavy sales promotion Reduce to take Increase to encourage Reduce to minimal

to entice trial advantage of heavy brand switching level

consumer demand

Adapted from Kotler, Marketing Management, 9th Edition, p. 363

four introductory price promotion strategies

High

Price

Low

Four IntroductoryPrice/Promotion Strategies

Promotion

High

Low

Rapid-

skimming

strategy

Slow-

skimming

strategy

Rapid-

penetration

strategy

Slow-

penetration

strategy

Source: Kotler, Marketing Management, 10th Edition, 1999, p. 307

the marketing communications mix

Personal Selling

Advertising

Any paid form of non-personal presentation by an identified sponsor.

Sales Promotion

Short-term incentives to encourage trial or purchase.

Public Relations

Protect and/or promote company’s image/products. Usually un-paid media .

Personal Presentations.

Direct Communications With Individuals to Obtain an Immediate Response.

Direct Marketing

The Marketing Communications Mix
slide44

Promotion Mix

Personal Selling Direct Marketing

Sales presentations Catalogs

Sales meetings Mailings

Incentive programs Telemarketing

Samples Electronic shopping

Fairs and trade shows TV shopping

Fax mail

E-mail

Voice mail

Advertising Sales/Trade Promotion Public Relations

Print and broadcast ads Contests, games, sweepstakes, lotteries Press kits

Packaging - outer Tie-ins Speeches

Packaging inserts Premiums and gifts Seminars

Motion pictures Sampling Annual reports

Brochures and booklets* Fairs and trade shows Charitable donations

Posters and leaflets* Exhibits, demonstrations Sponsorships

Directories Coupons, rebates Publications

Reprints of ads Low-interest financing Community relations

Billboards Entertainment Lobbying

Display signs* Trade-in allowances Events

Point-of-purchase displays* Continuity programs Company magazine/newsletter

Audio-visual material* Trade Promotions Identity media

Symbols and logos Credit Terms

Videotapes

*Also referred to as Merchandising

slide45

Consumer Goods

Industrial Goods

Personal Selling

Sales Promotion

Advertising

Sales Promotion

Advertising

Personal Selling

Public Relations

Public Relations

High Tech/Industrial Goods

Services

Personal Selling

Word of Mouth

Advertising - Trade mag’s

Personal Selling

Trade Shows

Public Relations

Technical seminars

Advertising

Technical publications

Sales Promotion

Adv. - Direct mail

Relative Spending on Promotional Tools

importance of promotional tools for high tech firms

Very

Important

Not

Important

Importance of Promotional Tools for High Tech Firms
  • Sales and sales mgmt
  • Advertising in trade magazines
  • Trade shows
  • Technical seminars/presentations
  • Sales promotional materials
  • Direct mail advertising
  • Packaging
  • Newspaper advertising
  • Television
  • Radio

Viardot, 1998, p. 185.

advertising
Advertising
  • Definition: Informing and persuading through paid media (television, radio, magazine, newspaper, outdoor, and direct mail).
  • Two components:
    • Media/Vehicle
    • Message
advertising media strategies
Advertising Media Strategies

For example:

  • “Use national trade publications across at least two top boat engine mfg. magazines to broaden reach potential.”
  • “Develop brochures to distribute at trade shows.”
  • “Schedule direct mail drops in the month prior to launch announcing that the product is about to launch.”
  • “Schedule web page banners on major search engines during the month after the launch.”
comparing media

Adapted from Kotler, 10th p. 588;

www.infoseek.com

Medium Example of Cost Advantages Limitations

Newspapers $45,900-1 pg Flexibility; timeliness; good local Short life; poor reproduction

weekday market coverage; broad acceptance; small “pass-along” audience

Chicago Tribune high believability

Television $1,900 for 30 sec Combines sight, sound, motion High absolute cost, high clutter;

prime time-Chicago appealing to senses; high attention; fleeting exposure; less audience

high reach selectivity

Direct Mail $1,520 for a list of Audience selectivity; flexibility; Relatively high cost; “junk mail”

40,000 veterinarians no ad competition within the image

medium; personalization

Radio $400 for one minute Mass use; high geographic and Audio presentation only; lower

commuting drive time demographic selectivity; low attention than TV; non-stndzd

in Chicago cost rate structures; fleeting exposure.

Magazines $126,755 - 1 pg, High geographic and demographic Long ad purchase lead time; some

4-color, Newsweek selectivity; credibility and prestige; waste circulation; no guarantee of

high-quality reproduction; long position

life; good pass-along readership

Outdoor $25,500/mo. - 71 Flexibility; high repeat exposure; No audience selectivity; creative

billboards metro Chicago low cost; low competition. limitations

Web $2,500 minimum/mo - Perpetually fresh content; Access to Creative limitations - space;

$70 CPM Banner in info.; visual/aural appeal of TV; under development; security

Altavista hyper-impulsivity concerns; clutter

Comparing Media
media decisions
Media Decisions
  • Reach - how many of your target audience is exposed once to the ad during the time period.
  • Frequency - how many times they are exposed during the time period
media decisions51
Media Decisions
  • GRP (Gross Rating Point) - 1 exposure to 1% of the target population
  • ReachX Frequency= GRP
  • e.g., if a media schedule reaches 80% of targeted homes/businesses, with an average exposure frequency of 3, the media schedule has 240 GRPs.
media decisions52
Media Decisions
  • Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
  • Measure of efficiency/method of comparison
    • Television
      • If Cost=$55,000 and Reach=10MM HH*, CPM = $5.50
    • Trade Magazine:
      • If cost=$2,925 and Reach=25M paid readers, CPM=$104.46
    • Direct Mail
      • If cost=$1,520 and Reach=40M veterinarians, CPM=$38.00
    • Web
      • If cost=$2,500 and Reach=100,000, CPM=$25.00#
      • *Households
      • #Altavista advertising rate card provides estimates ranging from $8 CPM to $85 CPM
determining frequency goals

Judgmental Probability of Producing Response with Advertising Alone

Definition

Range

Response

Determining Frequency Goals

1-3 Recognition Recalls advertising when Least difficult

shown/mentioned product

3-6 Unaided Names product when asked Difficult

Awareness about category

4-7 Recall Recalls advertising and More difficult

identifies product

5-8 Learning Associates information about Very difficult

the product with the name

6-10 Attitude Prefers the product, Extremely difficult

positive attitude

10+ Sales Purchases Most difficult

Hiebing & Cooper, 1997, p. 321

advertising54
Advertising
  • Definition: Informing and persuading through paid media (television, radio, magazine, newspaper, outdoor, and direct mail).
  • Two components:
    • Media/Vehicle
    • Message
how do involved customers differ from uninvolved customers
Information processors

Active audience

Evaluate before buying

Seek to maximize utility

Purchase based on well-formed attitude

Subject to reference group effects

Random exposure

Passive audience

Evaluate after buying

Seek to satisfy

Purchase based on familiarity

Few reference group effects

How do Involved Customers Differ from Uninvolved Customers?

Highly Involved CustomersUninvolved Customers

strategic implications involved customers
Strategic ImplicationsInvolved Customers
  • If advertising, spend your $$ on print ads, not TV
  • Provide opportunities for customers to see the product/service in action
    • Trade shows
    • Seminars
  • Supply detailed information
  • Product differentiation
  • Selective distribution
  • Knowledgeable sales support
the special case of high technology
The Special Case of High Technology
  • The High Tech Customer – main purchasing criteria
    • Cost of product
    • Confidence in selling company
    • Product performance
    • Quality
  • Requires communications that are:
    • Reassuring
    • Instructive

Viardot, p. 182

advertising message strategies
Advertising Message Strategies
  • Based on the benefit sought by the market segment being targeted
  • Reassuring and Informative
  • Aimed at particular communications objectives
    • Awareness
    • Knowledge
    • Liking
    • Preference
    • Conviction
    • Purchase
  • - Awareness
  • - Interest
  • - Evaluation
  • - Trial
  • - Adoption

Glover, Hartley & Patti reading

Adoption Process

promotion
Promotion
  • Definition: An activity offering incentive above and beyond the product’s inherent attributes and benefits to stimulate incremental purchase (or association with) the product in the short run.
  • Four major areas:
    • Price incentives - some form of savings vs. full price
    • Product - providing a sample of the product
    • Merchandise or gifts - giving customers the opportunity to obtain merchandise w/purchase
    • An experience - participation of individual/group in contests, sweepstakes, trips, etc.
promotion vs advertising
Promotion vs. Advertising
  • Advertising = reason to buy
  • Promotion = incentive to buy
the marketing plan61

I. Executive Summary

The Marketing Plan

II. Marketing Situation Analysis

III. Opportunity and Issue Analysis

IV. Objectives

V. Marketing Strategy

Segmentation, Targeting

Differentiation, Positioning

Product

Marketing Mix

Price

Promotion

Positive Word-of-Mouth

Place

VI. Action Programs

VII. Projected Profit-and-Loss

VIII. Controls

slide63

Positive

Word-of-Mouth

  • Opinion Leaders
  • Methods
exercise coming
Exercise Coming
  • Where might you find people who would be considered opinion leaders for the product or technology in your projects?
    • Individually: 5 minutes
    • Teams: 5 minutes
    • Report out: 10 minutes
word of mouth as influence
Word-of-Mouth as Influence
  • Twice as effective as radio advertising
  • Four times as effective as personal selling
  • Seven times as effective as newspapers and magazines
developing a w o m campaign
Developing a W-O-M “Campaign”
  • Objective: develop or change attitudes/opinions
  • Decide on the message to spread
    • Best in delivering messages with intangible qualities (commitment, credibility, appeal and support).
  • Decide who should receive the message (target a specific audience)

McKenna, 1985

targets for w o m campaigns
Targets for W-O-M Campaigns
  • Financial Community
  • Industry-watchers
  • Customers
  • The press
  • The selling chain
  • The community

McKenna, 1985

opinion leaders
Opinion Leaders
  • People whose opinions widely respected within social groups
  • They
    • are usually trend setters – stay current with trends
    • focus on specific product categories
    • are either regular “purchasers” or “watchers” in the category
    • get information from first hand experience
    • read magazines, watch news reports, attend conventions
    • may be perceived as mavericks by their own group
    • think of themselves as giving information to others
exercise69
Exercise
  • Where might you find people who would be considered opinion leaders for the product or technology in your projects?
    • Individually: 5 minutes
    • Teams: 5 minutes
    • Report out: 10 minutes
how to influence and create opinion leaders
How to Influence and Create Opinion Leaders
  • Involve them in beta testing
  • Provide them with sample of product/service
  • Involve them in product and/or package design
  • Offer incentives for referrals
  • Use advertising designed to stimulate or simulate word-of-mouth, i.e., show one person telling another about your product/service.
developing a w o m campaign71
Developing a W-O-M “Campaign”
  • Objective: develop or change attitudes/opinions
  • Decide on the message to spread
    • Best in delivering messages with intangible qualities (commitment, credibility, appeal and support).
  • Decide who should receive the message (target a specific audience)
  • Decide who should deliver it
  • Develop relationships with key people in the industry infrastructure

McKenna, 1985

slide72

Presence and Credibility

The “unofficial” 6th “P”

credibility is paramount
Credibility is Paramount
  • Start-ups – the perception:
    • Strong scientific know-how; weak business know-how
    • New, unproven – therefore possibly unreliable
  • Customers need:
    • Confidence in company
how credibility is developed
How Credibility is Developed
  • Inference
    • people infer that the startup must be a credible competitor
  • Reference
    • when making complex decisions, people depend on references of others they trust
  • Evidence
    • success breeds success

McKenna, 1985

strategies vs action programs
Strategies vs. Action Programs
  • Strategies: Broad statements with rationale
    • Positioning
    • 4 P’s
  • Action Programs
    • Execution details – 4 P’s
      • Specific description
      • Timing
      • Cost
strategies examples
Strategies (Examples)
  • Product:
    • Design the product to include the X, Y, Z attributes (rationale)
    • Use the brand name of XXX because (rationale)
  • Pricing (policy):
    • Price to (skim, penetrate, maximize ROI, higher/lower than competition, etc.) because (rationale)
  • Promotion
    • Promotion Objectives: Stimulate awareness, knowledge, and liking in target audience.
    • Advertising Media (see earlier Media Strategies slide):
      • Advertise in (industry) trade journals (rationale)
      • Use direct mail advertising to (people) (rationale)
    • Advertising Message: Convey (positioning) to (generate awareness/inform/ persuade)
    • Sponsor seminars for (people) (rationale)
    • Attend key industry trade shows (rationale)
    • Use print collateral materials (brochures, flyers, etc.)
action programs examples
Action Programs (Examples)
  • Send direct mail piece to 344 Gizmo-User CEO’s during month 1 of launch. Cost: list + production: $2,750.
  • Place the following print ads in trade journals :
    • Appliance - 3 ads (May, June, Oct), ½ page, 4-color: $2925 each + production
    • Design News – 6 ads (May 8, 22, June 12, July 10, Sept. 11, Oct. 16), ½ page, b/w: $5815 each + production
  • Conduct customer seminars on (dates); cost = $3000 each
  • See Programming Calendar
advertising promotional timing
Advertising/Promotional Timing
  • Objective: Increase effect/efficiency of advertising and customer/distributor promotion
  • Public Relations Campaigns – 7 to 30 days before launch
  • Avoid “dead” seasons (Summer, November, December)
  • Plan advertising exposures to maximize effect
    • After initial filling of distribution channels (launch)
    • Prior to customer/distributor promotions
    • Prior to and during early-middle stages of seasonal purchasing cycles

Rossiter & Percy, 1987, p. 331, 445

Kitchko, 1998

review wrap up promotion communication
Review/Wrap-UpPromotion/Communication
  • Communication/Promotion Objectives
  • Types of promotion/communication most effective for high technology products.
  • Advertising media
  • Advertising message
    • Communications process
    • Objectives
  • Word-of-Mouth
  • Promotional calendars – integrated marketing communications
  • Great web sites at end

Remember to complete evaluations

slide82

References

  • Best, Roger J., Market-Based Management: Strategies for Growing Customer Value and Profitability, Prentice Hall, 1997.
  • Best, R. (2000) Market Based Management, Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall
  • Cafferky, M.E. (1996). Let Your Customers do the Talking: 301+ Word-of-Mouth Marketing Tactics Guaranteed to Boost Profits. Upstart Publishing (Dearborn Publishing)
  • Davidow, W.H. (1986). Marketing High Technology, New York: The Free Press
  • Dwyer, F.R. & Tanner, J.F. (1999). Business Marketing, Boston: Irwing/McGraw-Hill
  • Funk, T.F. & Phllips, W. (1990). Segmentation of the Market for Table Eggs in Ontario, Agribusiness, 6(4) (July), pp. 309-327.
  • Kitchco, C (1998) High Tech Product Launch, Mountain View, CA: Pele
  • Lilien, G.L. & Rangaswamy, A. (1998). Marketing Engineering, Reading, MA.: Addison-Wesley
  • MacMillan, I.C. & McGrath, R.G. (1997). “Discovering New Points of Differentiation”, Harvard Business Review, July-August, 1997, pp. 133-145.
  • McKenna, R. (1985). Market Positioning in High Technology, California Management Review, 27(3), Spring, 1985, 82-108.
  • Moore, G. (1999). Crossing the Chasm. New York: HarperBusiness.
  • Rossiter, J.R. & Percy, L. (1987). Advertising and Promotion Management. NY: McGraw-Hill
  • Trout, J. (2000). Differentiate or Die. New York: John Wiley & Sons
  • Viardot, E. (1998). Successful Marketing Strategy for High Tech Firms, Boston: Artech House.
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Additional WWW Sources

  • Comprehensive Advertising/Marketing Site: http://advertising.utexas.edu/world/
  • Trade Shows: http://www.tscentral.com/
  • Media:
    • Standard Rate and Data Service (book in library): http://www.srds.com/
    • Publications: http://www.publist.com/ and http://www.mediafinder.com
  • Mailing Lists: www.infousa.com
next time
Next Time

Topics:

  • Reading
  • Prepare/discuss study questions in Discussion Board – Session 8
  • Work on Final Marketing Plan (MPD#3)
marketing plan del 3 due 9 15 02
Marketing Plan Del. #3Due: 9/15/02

Read the Instructions!

  • Complete Marketing Plan.
  • Be sure to use the Positioning Statement format presented in class/template/Crossing the Chasm.
  • Presentation Guidelines:
    • 15 pages max
    • Double-spaced; 1” margins; document sources
    • p.s. 10 pt. font minimum