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The future of lead-free soldering from an ELFNET perspective. 17 th May 2007. Dag Andersson, IVF. Outline. ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 State-of-the-art – some gaps remain Color book Roadmapping Summary. Launch of ELFNET, CA FP6 – April 2004.

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17 th May 2007


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    1. The future of lead-free soldering from an ELFNET perspective 17th May 2007 Dag Andersson, IVF

    2. Outline • ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 • State-of-the-art – some gaps remain • Color book • Roadmapping • Summary COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    3. Launch of ELFNET, CA FP6 – April 2004 “To urgently coordinate, integrate and optimise the critical mass of European research in lead-free soldering; providing pan-European support for implementation of the RoHS Directive” • To a deadline of July 2006 for consumer products • To a deadline of 2010 or before for IT-network products • To implement lead-free technology in sectors outside scope of RoHS (e.g. automotive, aerospace) • €2.3M (230 person-months) over 3 years • April 2004 – March 2007 COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    4. ELFNET Structure COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    5. European Research Expertise • Solders • Solder manufacturers – Henkel, Heraeus, Avantec • ITRI/Soldertec • Universities - COST 531 network… • Components • IMEC, IXL, PDM • E4 – Philips, ST Microelectronics, Infineon, Freescale • Intermetallics • Helsinki University, IVF • Reliability • EMPA, IMEC, University of Limerick, IMMG, FhG-IZM, Helsinki University, IVF….. • Industry – Automotive, Aerospace/Defence • Process • TNO, IVF, IMEC, NPL • Industry – CEM’s, Ericsson, Nokia, Siemens, Bosch • Environmental • TUB, VERC COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    6. Key Large-Scale Projects • INNOLOT • Harsh environment solders • COST 531 • Solder Alloy Properties Database • IMECAT • Assembly, Reliability • LEADFREE • Reliability, SME Demonstration • PROTIN (in cooperation JEITA, iNEMI, Soldertec) • Tin whiskers • EFSOT • Assembly, Environmental • SME RoHS Support – GREENROSE, LFS-for-SME’s, LEADOUT • Guidelines, hand soldering, defects COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    7. European Lead-Free Soldering Network 380 European expert members 530 electronics industry members 120 lead-free projects 300,000 website visitors per year Key Deliverables Solder Alloy Properties Database Reliability Book on Failures and Testing ELFNET Roadmap Expert Meetings/Presentations Industry leaders Research project coordinators Trade bodies Standards bodies Knowledge Base Research project reports ELFNET reviews Topic webpages Primary RoHS news source Guidance documents Contacts directory Collaborative Opportunities Heterogeneous Assembly Reliability Test Methods Reliability Modelling Tin Whiskers F7 Proposals COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    8. 2002-2006 1991-93 DTI project UK ITRI, Multicore, GEC-Marconi, BNR (Nortel) 1996-99 EU project IDEALS Siemens, Philips, Marconi, Multicore, Witmetaal LEADFREE EFSOT IMECAT PROTIN IMR COST 531 LFS-for_SME’s alloy selection implementation issues technology transfer 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 ELFNET ELFNET CA COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    9. Outline • ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 • State-of-the-art – some gaps remain • Color book • Roadmapping • Summary COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    10. Next Generation Lead-Free Solders • SAC+ • Improved properties, eg wetting, strength • Some commercially available products • Low-Silver SAC • Lower cost • BGA balls for mobile devices • SnZn, SnZn+ • Reliability issues – recent high profile Japanese failure • Consumer market – short lifetimes • Low cost, low temperature • SnBi • Lower temperature soldering • Wider Japanese experience • Requires no lead contamination – low temperature eutectic • Composite solders • Addition of ‘nanograins’ to improve properties • Disassembling solders • To aid recycling – conceptual only COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    11. High Temperature Solders • SnPb/SnPbAg in component packaging applications RoHS exempted • SnAu is available but niche due to cost • Some technologies but all deficient • Nanoparticulate conductive adhesives • Cu net composites • SnSbCu • New projects proposed • COST MP0602 university network (COST 531 follow-on) • Tokyo University COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    12. Reliability • Concerns still being expressed • Complex, sometimes contradictory data • Test methodologies • Commercially preferred SAC solders reached only 5% of the lifetime of Sn-Pb solders under combined thermal and vibration cycling (JCAA/JG-PP) • US and European (ELFNET) consortia • iNEMI High Reliability Task Force: Guidelines • JG-PP, CALCE: Research • ELFNET: Color book on Test Methods and Quality • New projects • GEAMCOS (Aerospace/Defence) – EADS, France • ALSHIRA (High Reliability) – IMEC, Belgium • Drop/Shock Tests – HUT, Finland; University of Limerick, Ireland COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    13. Large & Complex Boards • iNEMI identified significant difficulties • Hole-filling • Rework & repair • Warping • Delamination • Generally industry-based solutions in progress • Needs more collaborative research • Thermal management • New materials, processes COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    14. Halogen-Free • Deca-BDE controversy in Europe • TBBPA used in 95% Boards • Deca-BDE used in epoxy component packaging, casings etc • Halogen-free alternatives exist but • ~30% add-on cost • Issues with highly-filled systems – extra drilling, water absorption • More research required • Environmental impact, toxicology • Industrial trials – long-term ageing… COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    15. ‘Green Electronics’ • ECOLIFE, EFSOT projects completed – limited conclusions • US EPA/Tenessee LCA study published – strong debate • EuP (Eco-Design), REACH, China RoHS imminent • Need for further collaborative action COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    16. Micro-Nano Interconnection • High density interconnection a major driver • Component packaging configurations proliferating • New technologies • Copper pillars • 3D interconnects • Embedded passives • Bare die… • ELFNET expands its scopein the Interconnect Roadmap COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    17. Outline • ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 • State-of-the-art – some gaps remain • Color book • Roadmapping • Summary COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    18. The ELFNET Reliability and Quality Colour Book • Europe’s experts summarise state-of-the-art and latest results for causes and testing of the major lead-free quality issues and all known lead-free joint failure mechanisms. • The ultimate aim of the work is to lay the technical foundations for urgent on-going global efforts to harmonise reliability test methods and standards. Outcome of the work: • Definition of terms • Description of the mechanism • Test methods to activate the mechanism • Testing for material properties for simulation • Relevant mission profile • Reference to existing standards • Definition of what is a failure and how can it be detected. COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    19. Lessons learned from lively discussions • Reliability is a figure. It’s the probability that an entity works • Qualification tests ≠ Reliability tests; Reliability of process ≠ reliability of product; Quality problem ≠ reliability problem • Examples of new failure mechanisms: Kirkendall voids, champagne voids, cracking beneath paths • Standard tests do not give an information on the reliability of the tested product. They are the essence of the reliability know-how of known technologies. • Test can only be defined if the failure mechanism is understood and applied to the mission profile a product is tested for • Goal of ELFNET defined: No new standard but guideline COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    20. Lead free quality issues Issue Responsible • Thermal capability of components Christian Zardini, Jean-Yves Deletage • Warpage of Large Packages Bart Vandevelde • PCB delamination Eva Hedin, Ilknur Baylakoglu • Popcorn cracking Rainer Dudek • “Black Pad” and Intermetallic Layers Per-Erik Tegehall • Conductive Anodic Filaments Ling Zou, Alan Brewin, Chris Hunt • Tin Whiskers Antonello Vicenzo COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    21. Lead free reliability issues Issue Responsible • Low cycle fatigue Rainer Dudek • High cycle fatigue Guenter Grossmann • Brittle fracture bulk Konstantza Lambrinou • Brittle fracture interface Toni Mattila • Kirkendall voids Mo Biglari • Electromigration Bart Vandevelde • Electro-chemical migration Per-Erik Tegehall • Corrosion Milos Dusek • Collection of mission profiles Wilson Maia COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    22. Embrittlement of lead free solder COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    23. Failure of lead free solder under shock Simulation of flexing of a test board Brittle fracture at interface Measured longitudinal strain at the center of the board in drop test. COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    24. High cycle fatigue Classic high cycle fatigue Stress induced failure in bending test Determination of Woehlers curve COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    25. Outline • ELFNET – Coordination Action in FP6 • State-of-the-art – some gaps remain • Color book • Roadmapping • Summary COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    26. 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 - and beyond Beyond ELFNET 2002-2006 2008-2012 LEADFREE Leadout xx EFSOT xx IMECAT GreenRose PROTIN xx IMR xx Amelie LFS-for_SME’s ALSHIRA GEAMCOS MP 0602 COST 531 ELFNET ELFNET CA “ELFNET Roadmap” FP6 FP7 FP8- COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    27. Integration with Industry Roadmaps from … • IPC • iNEMI • ITRS • ECOLIFE • MEDEA+ • ENIAC • EPOSS • IPMMAN COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    28. ELFNET Roadmap • ‘The Future of European Electronics Interconnection’ • ELFNET + Industry roadmaps • State-of-the-art in key areas • Technology Drivers • Detailed Topic tables • Interconnection Trends table COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    29. Interconnection Trends COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    30. Packaging Roadmap.. Smaller;Faster;Cheaper; But ….. More complex, more integrated and more of Moore ! (ITRS etc) Source: Prof. H Reichl - ISS Berlin Feb 2005 COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    31. COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    32. Supply Chain Management • Materials Declaration • More clarity • New data tools • Marking & Labelling • Industry harmonisation • Clearer standards • RoHS Component Availability • Thermally compatible components • Shelf-life data • Continued availability of SnPb COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    33. Modelling & Design • Stress Modelling • Better collaboration • Knowledge of properties • New tools & methodologies • Thermal Simulation • Adaption of FEM tools • Design Tools & Methodologies • Design for Reliability (DfR) • Standards & Design Rules • More harmonisation • Adaption to new technologies • Better standards COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    34. Materials Technologies • Lead-Free Solders • High reliability solders • Lead-Free Finishes • Low cost, high quality finishes • Intermetallics control • Substrates • Thermally resistant laminates • Halogen-Free Materials • Non-phosphorus fire retardants • Underfills & Encapsulants • Reworkable underfills • CTE Matching • Thermally compatible vias COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    35. Process Technologies • Lead-Free Soldering • Effective rework & repair • Processing large & complex boards • Low temperature soldering • Heterogeneous Assembly • Improved printing technologies • Heterogeneous processing • New Process Technologies • Faster, more cost-effective laser soldering • New concepts for direct interconnect • Process Optimisation • Decrease process steps • More process control COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    36. Testing & Reliability • Inspection & Test • Effective high density testing • Adaption to new technologies • Reliability Testing • Harmonised test methods for lead-free • Lifetime prediction • Tin Whiskers • Global harmonisation of guidelines • More focus on component finishes • Improved understanding of behaviour • Harsh Environments • Robust, durable electronics COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    37. Sustainable Electronics • Life Cycle Analysis • Accurate, meaningful LCA results • Recycling & Reuse Technologies • Low cost electronics recycling • Reliable reusable components • Eco-Design • Eco-efficient electronics assemblies COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    38. Applied Nanotechnology • Nanosolders • Cost-effective, stable nanosolders • Nanoscale Interconnection • New materials/processes • Conductive Adhesives • Commercially viable large-scale • Plastic Electronics • Cost-effective, stable, printable interconnections COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    39. Component Packaging • System in Package (SiP) • Sub-systems linking • 3D Interconnects • New/improved methods, approaches • Better reliability • Interconnect Spacing • Lower power density • Vertical Interconnects • New fabrication concepts • Embedded Components • Better processing • Thermal Management • Advanced materials • Stable coplanarity COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    40. Summary • European research was sparse, fragmented and late • Japan and latterly US moving ahead with large-scale actions • ELFNET has drawn together experts, highlighted issues, provided data • Some key topics remain • RoHS implementation underway post-July 2006 deadline • Supply Chain issues eg Materials Declaration, Marking, Testing not fully resolved in Europe - Standards still in draft • Basic technology issues have real-world solutions – industry-led • Concerns remain over reliability in affected sectors • Improved materials technologies still evolving • Further environmental pressures imminent – REACH, EuP • Transition to excempt sectors until ?2012? COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    41. iVi Interconnect Virtual Institute COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007

    42. Thank you for your attention! COST Action 531 - Final Meeting Vienna – 17-18 May 2007