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Petroleum Engineering 406. Lesson 2 Well Control. Read. Well Control Manual Chapter 4-6 Homework 1 Due Jan. 1/28/04. Causes of Kicks - Tripping. Failure to keep the hole full. Causes of Kicks - Tripping. Swabbing. Causes of Kicks. Lost circulation. Causes of Kicks - Drilling.

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Petroleum engineering 406

Petroleum Engineering 406

Lesson 2

Well Control


Petroleum engineering 406
Read

  • Well Control Manual

    • Chapter 4-6

  • Homework 1 Due Jan. 1/28/04


Causes of kicks tripping
Causes of Kicks - Tripping

  • Failure to keep the hole full



Causes of kicks
Causes of Kicks

  • Lost circulation


Causes of kicks drilling
Causes of Kicks - Drilling

  • Insufficient density of drilling fluid

  • Drilling into Abnormal pressure


Causes of kicks other
Causes of Kicks - Other

  • Annular flow after cement job

  • Lost control during DST

  • Drilling into adjacent wells

  • Drilling through (shallow) gas zones at excessive rates


Kick warnings drilling
Kick Warnings - Drilling

  • Drilling break

  • Increase in flow rate



Kick warnings drilling2
Kick Warnings - Drilling

  • Decrease in circulating pressure

  • Increase in pump rate

  • Well flows with pumps off


Kick warnings tripping
Kick Warnings - Tripping

  • Improper hole fill

  • DO NOT WAIT FOR PIT GAIN OR FOR THE WELL TO FLOW

  • What should you do if the well is not taking the proper fill on a trip?


Shut in procedures drilling

Soft Shut In

Pick up the kelly until the tool joint clears the floor.

Shut down the pumps.

Check for flow.

If flowing, open the HCR valve.

Close BOP.

Close choke.

Hard Shut In

Pick up the kelly until the tool joint clears the floor.

Shut down the pumps.

Check for flow.

If flowing, Close BOP.

Open HCR valve.

Close choke.

Shut In Procedures - Drilling


Shut in procedures drilling1

Soft Shut In

Notify supervisors

Read & record SIDPP, SICP, Pit Gain, Time, Date

Prepare to implement kill.

Hard Shut In

Notify supervisors

Read & record SIDPP, SICP, Pit Gain, Time, Date

Prepare to implement kill.

Shut In Procedures - Drilling


Shut in procedures tripping
Shut In Procedures - Tripping

1. Set slips below top tool joint

2. Stab a full opening safety valve and close it.

3. Open the HCR and close the BOP, and choke

4. Pick up and stab the kelly or a pump-in line


Shut in procedures tripping1
Shut In Procedures - Tripping

5. Open the safety valve.

6. Notify the supervisors.

7. Read and record SIDPP, SICP, Pit gain, TVD of Well, TVD of bit, time, and date.

8. Prepare to implement kill.


Shut in procedures diverters
Shut In Procedures - Diverters

  • With diverters in use (prior to setting surface casing)

  • DO NOT SHUT IN WELL - DIVERT.


Shut in procedures casing
Shut In Procedures - Casing

1. Lower casing until a swage and valve can be stabbed.

2. Close the casing rams or annular preventer.

3. Stab the swage and valve.

4. Notify supervisor

5. Read and record pressures

6. Prepare to kill well


Well kill methods
Well Kill Methods

  • Wait & Weight method

  • Driller’s method

  • Circulate & weight

  • Concurrent method


Well kill methods1
Well Kill Methods

  • Reverse circulation

  • Dynamic kill

  • Bullheading

  • Lubricate and bleed

  • Volumetric



Wait weight method
Wait & Weight Method

  • Weight up mud to KWM and complete kill sheet

  • Circulate KWM to bit following decline schedule

  • Circulate KWM back to surface maintaining FCP on drillpipe pressure



Wait weight method2
Wait & Weight Method

  • When well is full of KWM, Shut in well

  • Check for remaining pressures

  • If surface pressures are zero, check for flow by cracking choke

  • If no flow, carefully open BOP’s

  • Circulate around again


Wait weight advantages
Wait & Weight - Advantages

  • Kill well in one circulation

  • Least amount of maximum casing pressures


Driller s method
Driller’s Method

  • Shut in well long enough to measured stabilized SI pressures

  • Circulate kick fluids from wellbore with original weight mud maintaining ICP on drillpipe

  • When kick fluids are circulated out, shut in well


Driller s method1
Driller’s Method

  • Weight up mud to KWM

  • Circulate KWM to bit following pressure decline schedule

  • Continue circulating KWM around maintaining FCP until KWM reaches surface

  • Shut well in, check for pressures, flow etc.



Driller s method advantages
Driller’s Method - Advantages

  • Short shut in times

  • Easy


Circulate weight
Circulate & Weight

  • Shut in long enough to measure stabilized SI pressures

  • Begin circulating kick from wellbore with OWM at ICP

  • While circulating, isolate one pit and begin to weight up to KWM

  • When mud is weighted up, switch pump suction to weighted pit, and follow W&W


Circulate weight advantages
Circulate & Weight - Advantages

  • Best of W&W and Driller’s


Concurrent method
Concurrent method

  • Weight up and circulate in increments

  • Takes one complete circulation for each increment


Reverse circulation
Reverse Circulation

  • Circulate down annulus and up the drillpipe or tubing.

  • Used extensively in workovers and completions


Dynamic kill
Dynamic Kill

  • For blowout control

    • Use high pump speeds and viscosities to generate high annular friction pressures

    • Annular friction used instead of surface choke

  • For shallow gas

    • Circulate as fast as rig pumps will allow through diverters

    • DO NOT HOLD ANY BACK PRESSURE


Bullheading
Bullheading

  • Pump kill fluid down wellbore, usually at relatively high speeds to force formation fluids back into formation

  • Used predominantly in:

    • Workover and completion operations

    • Austin Chalk flow drilling

    • When danger of H2S


Lubricate bleed
Lubricate & Bleed

  • Only applicable with gas at the surface

  • Pump in KWM into wellbore

  • Let KWM fall for some time

  • Bleed off gas

  • Repeat


Volumetric method
Volumetric Method

  • Used when circulation is not possible or when gas is migrating in closed in well

  • As surface pressures increase due to gas migration, bleed off excessive pressure and allow bubble to expand.

  • Continue until circulation can be resumed or until gas reaches surface


Use of kill sheet
Use of Kill Sheet

  • Pre-recorded information

    • SPP

    • Pump output

    • Drillstring capacity

    • Annular capacity

    • Pressure limitations

    • Circulation times

    • Number of strokes


Use of kill sheet1
Use of Kill Sheet

  • Post kick information

    • SIDPP

    • SICP

    • Pit gain

    • Time

    • Date


Use of kill sheet2
Use of Kill Sheet

  • Calculate:

    • KWM = SIDPP/0.052/TVD + OWM

    • ICP = SPP + SIDPP

    • FCP = SPP*KWM/OWM

  • Plot Pressure Decline Schedule



Kill sheet1
Kill Sheet

Plot ICP

Plot FCP