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Changing Occupations in the Tourism Sector

Changing Occupations in the Tourism Sector

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Changing Occupations in the Tourism Sector

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  1. Changing Occupations in the Tourism Sector The Case of Canada Marion Joppe School of Hospitality and Tourism Management International Workshop 29-30 April 2004

  2. Current employment (2003) • Food & Beverage Service 766,100 • Recreation & Entertainment 379,400 • Transportation 272,300 • Accommodation 206,900 • Travel Services 41,200 Total 1,665,900 10.7% of total employment in Canada

  3. Industry Growth in Canada • Growth anticipated at 8-10% -- next 2 years • Dropping to 1-2% -- next decade • Growth above average over past 20 years • Employment growth at 2-2.5% -- next 2 years • Dropping to about 1% -- next decade • Olympic Games and attendant projects will put significant pressure on employment growth during 2008-2010.

  4. Projected Skill Shortages • 3 Occupational categories: • Managers in Food Service and Accommodation: severe but only for medium- term • Chefs and Cooks: medium but long-term • Occupations in Food and Beverage Services: medium but long-term

  5. Causes of Skill Shortage • Aging of the population • Retention – heavy reliance on youth • Recruitment – salary and wage disparity • Internal skill gaps

  6. Aging of the population

  7. Dual Concern • Much lower percentage of 45+ than other industries: • 22% compared to • 40% in goods-producing sectors • 35% in services-producing sectors • Huge competition for youth segment 15-24 years old • 46% compared to • 13% in goods-producing sectors • 19% in services-producing sectors

  8. Retention • Heavy reliance on youth • Substantial number of part-time, temporary and casual workers • Business cycle and seasonality • Academic school year • Working conditions • Employment practices

  9. Recruitment • Image of the industry • Salaries and wages significantly below other professions • Skills easily transferable and much prized by other industries • Only 50% of tourism graduates in the labour market are working in tourism industry (B.C.)

  10. Internal skill gap • IT skills • Literacy and numeracy • Communication/presentation skills • Customer handling/service • Problem solving and critical analysis • Leadership skills • Financial management and cost control • Project management

  11. Weak internal market • Few professions require certification of any kind • Pay and promotion have tenuous link with credentials • Few occupations with set educational requirements for employment • Many graduates from non-tourism programs hired into tourism occupations

  12. Alternate sources of workers • Immigration • Aboriginals • Disabled • Older workers – early retirees • Social Assistance recipients

  13. Fragmentation of HR policy • Split in functions with some overlap between federal and provincial/territorial governments • Human Resource Development Canada • Sector Councils • Education controlled provincially • Often separate responsibilities for • Secondary schools • Colleges and universities • Industry training, apprenticeship

  14. Formal education • Apprenticeships – limited to chefs and cooks • Certification – limited to travel agents, health related occupations, e.g. massage therapist • Colleges – 2, 3 and 4 yr applied degrees • Universities – 4 yr degrees and graduate programs Only B.C. has seemless transition

  15. Canadian Tourism Human Resource Council (CTHRC) – sector council • national non-profit organization • promotes and enhances professionalism • network of partners • tourism businesses, • labour unions, • Provincial Tourism Education Councils (TECs), • provincial, territorial and national associations, • education/training providers, • government

  16. Lead tourism human resource development in Canada • Sets a national vision and direction • Co-ordinates and facilitates establishment and maintenance of National Occupational Standards, training resources and Professional Certification • Promotes a training culture.

  17. Acts as advocate nationally and internationally on tourism human resource issues. • Supports and encourage efforts to attract people to establish careers in tourism. • Acts as a clearinghouse and forum for information sharing and research

  18. National Occupational Standards • Documents describing skills, knowledge and attitudes necessary for competent performance in specific tourism occupation • Job profile • contains criteria-based performance statements, • knowledge requirements of the job, • contextual information • Benchmarks for assessments

  19. Establishment of standards • Subject matter experts from across Canada: complete range of the occupation • Formal job analysis process • Additional data through observation, interviews, literature reviews, and surveys • Formal validation by the industry measurable, competency-based standards designed by industry

  20. Standardized tourism occupations • Some 50+ national occupational standards developed to date • From Door Staff to Golf Club General Manager • Many more at provincial level • Address portable skills: • basic • workplace specific • Many lead to formal certification

  21. Example: Front Desk Agent Covers the following topics: • Interpersonal Skills • Guest Services • Reservations and Sales • Arrivals and Departures • Departmental Operations • Safety and Security • Legislation

  22. Professional Certification • Industry-recognized credential upon successful monstration of competence • Formal process of assessment • Candidates must meet minimum requirements or pre-requisites • Successfully pass examination • Meet specified experience requirements

  23. HTNCareerNet.com • Job website that builds on the skills and qualifications identified through standards • Over 1000 pages of job specific profiles • Probably most comprehensive job matching service in the world today

  24. Research in British Columbia • Long history of focusing on professionalism in tourism • Key sector of the economy • Aggressive growth targets • Most advanced integrated education system providing seamless transition • Most committed to occupational standards and certification

  25. Source of Training • Survey of 1319 employees hired in 16 NOCs: 23% came from tourism related programs • Exceptions are chefs – 69%, cooks – 52% and outdoor recreation guides – 47% • Key tourism occupations show workforce with significantly lower educational attainment than general population

  26. Educational level Significantly higher than (all occupations): • University (17%) • Conference and event planners 27% • Tour and travel guides 19% • Some post-secondary (45%) • Travel counsellors 67% • Tour and travel guides 60% • Chefs 59% • Conference and event planners 58% • Ticket and cargo agents (not airline) 57% • Program leaders/instructors in recreation/sport 57% • Hotel front desk clerks 55% • Food service supervisors 50%

  27. Communication: reading + writing + oral Customer service Numeracy Problem solving Decision-making Risk management Finding information Job task planning and organizing Working with others Computer use Practicing sustainability Language proficiency Training gaps Skills across occupations, considered essential:

  28. Training gaps • Profession specific • Adventure tourism/outfitting related • Ecotourism related • Health and wellness related • Casino management • Entrepreneurship