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Time study procedure - overview. Perform methods analysis. Identify elements. Observe one or more operators to find observed time. Give a rating to adjust observed time and find normal time. Add allowances to normal time to find standard time.

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Time study procedure overview
Time study procedure - overview

  • Perform methods analysis.

  • Identify elements.

  • Observe one or more operators to find observed time.

  • Give a rating to adjust observed time and find normal time.

  • Add allowances to normal time to find standard time.

  • Procedures attempt to reduce inaccuracies of going from the sample to the population and from the present world to the future world.

Step 1 methods analysis
Step 1: Methods analysis

  • Purposes:

    • Establish a safe, productive job.

    • Leave a permanent record of method for future use.

  • Most of effort should be in job design and productivity rather than time standards.

  • Once the best method is established, break the job into elements.

  • Use the following forms as needed …


  • Flow chart

    • product / people flow

    • motion patterns

  • Process chart

  • Right and left hand chart

  • Multi-activity chart

  • Operator / Machine chart

In class exercise
In-class exercise

  • Time to fill peg board – old method

    • Follow the method given in the handout

    • Determine the time to completely fill one board

    • Repeat 5 times and calculate the average …

  • Redesign workspace and work method … (5 minutes)

Step 2 break the job into elements
Step 2: Break the job into elements

  • Why …

    • Makes it possible to reuse the data.

    • Permits different ratings for different elements.

    • Permits consistency checks.

    • Improves methods descriptions.

    • Makes incomplete data useful.

Step 2 break the job into elements1
Step 2: Break the job into elements

  • How …

    • Identify complete actions, e.g.

      • Get a part

      • Assemble two pieces together

    • Define action endpoints (EP) or terminal points (TP)

      • Easily recognizable

      • Logical in context

      • Example: Get part A, TP is part A at center

        Assemble two parts, TP is release of assembly in bin

    • Endpoint of one action is beginning of the next

    • Always keep manual and machine time separate

Operator selection
Operator selection

  • Treat the operator with dignity and respect.

  • Try to make the sample representative of the population.

  • Select experienced rather than inexperienced workers.

  • Select average or typical workers.

  • Vary the times and days of studies.

Timing techniques
Timing techniques

  • Stopwatch

    • Use snapback mode.

    • Use electronic watches.

    • Avoid using continuous mode.

  • Videotape

    • Provides a permanent record of the method.

    • Analysis can be done by person other than camera operator.

    • Elements can be performance rated.

Statistical approach pg 492
Statistical approach – pg. 492

  • Number of observations depends on:

    • Accuracy desired

    • Confidence desired

    • Data variability

  • Example: A time study is being planned. A preliminary sample of 20 times is shown to have a mean of 16 seconds and a standard deviation of 0.4 seconds. If a relative accuracy of 10% and a 95% (round to 2) confidence interval are desired, how many observations are required?

Statistical approach example cont
Statistical approach – example (cont.)

  • Standard deviation method:

  • Alternatively, use range method (see box 25.1)

Importance of decision approach
Importance-of-decision approach

  • Number of observations depends on:

    • Importance of accuracy of the time standard

    • Cycle time

    • Activity/year

    • Cost of an inaccurate standard

  • See table 25.2, pg. 493

Irregular and foreign observations
Irregular and foreign observations

  • Irregular elements: operator activity that the observer did not anticipate

    • include like other elements

    • determine how often per unit produced

    • example: clear hopper, change blade, etc.

  • Foreign elements: operator activity that is outside normal work


  • Avoidable delays will not be included in standard.

    • Drinking coffee

    • Chatting with coworker

  • Unavoidable delays will be included in standard.

    • Talking to supervisor about work

    • Waiting for supplies

    • Breaking a tool

Recording technique for unusual events
Recording technique for unusual events

  • Missed readings

    • ‘M’ in time slot

  • Omitted elements

    • ‘-’ in time slot

  • Elements out of order

    • see columns 6-8, next page

  • Unexpected elements

    • code events (A, B, C, etc.)

    • explain code elsewhere in short (1-3 word) note


  • Ensures that the standard is based on the method, not the operator.

  • To improve rating accuracy, study an average operator.

  • Studying average operators also improves worker acceptance of the standard.

Normal pace
Normal pace

  • Normal pace must be defined prior to observation.

  • Define motivated productivity level (MPL) first.

  • Acceptable productivity level is within expectancy of MPL.

  • MPL is the work pace of a motivated, skilled, physically fit worker.

Rating techniques problems
Rating techniques - problems

  • Micromotions change their proportions of the total task as the pace changes.

    • Low-skill micromotions change less than the overall task.

    • High-skill micromotions change more than the overall task.

  • Levels of methods detail

    Level 1: Management-controlled

    Level 2: Management attempts to control

    Level 3: Operator-controlled

Rating techniques solutions
Rating techniques: solutions

  • Pace rating: Observer estimates the pace.

  • Objective rating:

    • Observer rates the speed.

    • Observer estimates task difficulty.

    • Observer multiplies speed factor by difficulty factor to get pace.

  • Improve accuracy

    • number of observations

    • skilled operator

    • observer skilled at job

  • Train raters

Setting allowances
Setting allowances

  • Personal and fatigue allowances are set from tables.

  • Delay allowances are set from delays actually occurring on the job.

  • Delays during a time study may provide estimate for the delays to allow for the standard.