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Time Study

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Time Study

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  1. Time Study Summer Training Industrial Engineering Department

  2. Work Measurement Tools • Time Study • Work Sampling • Standard Data • Predetermined Time Systems • Physiological Measures

  3. Time Study • Establishment of Time Standards • Estimates • Historical records • Standards

  4. Estimates • Original method • Increasing competition requires fact rather than judgment • Unfair due to variability among estimators • Looking at a job and judging the amount of the time needed

  5. Historical Records • Based on the record of similar, previously performed jobs • Measures time over entire job with no consideration of delays • Better than estimates (or lack of a standard)

  6. Time Study • Establishes a standard for a given task • Measures work content, allows for fatigue, personal and unavoidable delays • Increases the efficiency of the equipment and personnel

  7. “A Fair Days Work” • The amount of work that can be produced by a qualified employee when working at a normal pace and effectively utilizing their time where work is not restricted by process limitations

  8. Responsibility • Notification • Proper cutting tools, lubricants, materials, feeds & speeds, knowledge of procedure • Normal pace, no introduction of new movements • Union support

  9. Equipment • Stopwatch • Decimal minute watch – 100 divisions (.01 minute) • Provides continuousorsnapback timing • Electronic watch – accuracy of .001 second (600 times more accurate) • Provides bothcontinuousand snapback timing • Computer Assisted Electronic Stopwatch

  10. Equipment (con’t) • Video cameras • Time study board • Time study forms (TP) • Time study Software • Training equipment

  11. Figure 9.4 – Snapback Method

  12. Time Study Elements • Watch operator for several cycles • Break task down into fine elements • Look for natural breakpoints using both sight and sound • Record elements in proper sequence • Do not repeat identical elements descriptions, just reference the previous #

  13. Timing • Record only what is necessary to rebuild later (TP) • Two Methods • Snapback: Watch is reset after each breakpoint of an element • Continuous: Watch is allowed to run for the entire job being evaluated

  14. Snapback Method • No clerical time needed to subtract from the previous observations as in continuous (TP) • Read and record Observed Time (OT) directly • Short element times are difficult to time • Possible cycle time lost during the snapback (N/A to electronic watch)

  15. Continuous Method • Presents a complete record for the entire observation period • All delays and foreign elements are recorded • Better adapted to record short element times • Clerical work required

  16. Figure 9-7 Continuous Study

  17. Missed Breakpoints • Immediately mark an “M” in the W column • If operator omits an element, draw a dash (-) through the applicable space in the W column

  18. Foreign Elements • Things that are external to the process that delay the work moving forward • Include: Supervisor interruptions, power losses, defective parts, leaving workstation, tool breakage, etc… • Occurring during an element, write A, B, C, etc…In the NT block (TP)

  19. Number of Cycles to Record • Tabulated data (TP) • Statistical methods • Confidence • Accuracy

  20. Ratings • Normalize the readings to the “average operator” • Can be for the entire element or individual cycles • NT=OT x R/100

  21. Allowances • Typically about 15% • Personal interruptions • Fatigue • Unavoidable delay • Standard Time (ST) = NT (1 + allowance)

  22. Study Calculations • Start time, Finish time, Elapsed time, Time elapsed before study (TEBS), Time elapsed after study (TEAS), Total check time, Effective time, Ineffective time, Unaccounted time, Recording error (should not exceed ~ 2%)

  23. Questions & Comments