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Chapter 8: Early Childhood: Social & Emotional Development
Question: • What 3 things have a strong influence on a child’s social and emotional development? 1. Parents 2. Siblings 3. Peers
1. Parents: • Have very different approaches to rearing their children. • Foster the development of certain behaviors in their children using various techniques. • The techniques a parent uses can be considered on two broad dimensions: a. warmth-coldness and b. restrictiveness-permissiveness
Warm Parents: • Affectionate toward their children (hug, kiss, smile at them) • Caring, supportive • Enjoy being with their children and communicate this to them • Less likely to use physical discipline • Proud and entertained by their child’s stubborn behavior (even though they try to change it)
Cold Parents: • May not enjoy being with their children • Few feelings of affection • Likely to complain about their child's behavior, ie. “he is so naughty!” He has a mind of his own!”
Restrictive Parents: • Impose many rules • Watch children closely • Restrictive about a lot of things, not just a few • Consistent control and firm rules
Permissive Parents: • Impose few, if any rules • Supervise children less closely (though they still childproof the house, etc.) • Allow children to do what is natural (be messy, make noise, play with their body, etc.) • May allow aggression and intervene only when another child is in danger.
Remember: • A warm parent can be restrictive or permissive. So can a cold parent.
Effects of the Situation and the Child on Parenting Styles: • Is a reciprocal influence, parent and child influence each other equally. • Children influence how their parents treat them. • Parenting behaviors and styles often evolve as a consequence of the child’s: a. Age b. Temperament c. Behavior
Effects of the Situation, cont. a. Age: Parenting changes as the child grows. Parenting that is effective during the toddler years may not be effective during adolescence. • Parental affection changes as children age and become more reserved, so warmth is harder to show. • As children get older control moves from the parent to themselves and children are expected to act maturely.
Effects of the Situation, cont. b. Temperament : A child’s temperament has a powerful effect on parental behavior. c. Behavior: Children’s behavior helps determine how parents treat them, and the resulting treatment influences children’s behavior, which in turn causes parents to again change their behavior.
2. Siblings: • Most of us have 2 siblings. • They make a unique contribution to a child’s social emotional and cognitive development. What functions to siblings serve? • A. Physical care • B. Emotional support/nurturance • C. Offering advice
b. Siblings, cont. Functions, cont. • D. Serving as role models • E. Making demands • F. Imposing restrictions • G. Engaging in conflict (enhances social competence, development of self identity, and ability to rear their own children)
Know: • As peers get older, their relationship tends to become more equal, and the amount of conflict decreases.
c. Peers • Exert powerful socialization influences and pressures to conform. • Physical and cognitive skills develop through peer interactions. • Peers provide emotional support • Peers guide children and give them practice: A. Sharing
C. Peers, cont. B. Helping C. Taking turns D. Dealing with conflict E. How to lead, and how to follow F. Coping with aggressive influences
How do Children’s Concepts of Friendship Develop/Change? • 4-5: I like her toys and playing with our favorite toys together. • 8-11: We like each other and share activities. We trust each other and will help each other when needed. (but if I need emotional support I will talk to a close family member) • Adolescent: I can trust and communicate with my friend which is really important to me. My friend is my source of social and emotional support. (not my close family members)