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U nited A rab E mirates U niversity C ollege of E ngineering E lectrical E ngineering D epartment. Design, construction and control of an electric train circuit. Group Members: Adra Mohammed Rawan Ibrahim Maitha Saeed Osha Saeed .

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design construction and control of an electric train circuit

United Arab Emirates University

College of Engineering

Electrical Engineering Department

Design, construction and control of an electric train circuit

Group Members:

Adra Mohammed

Rawan Ibrahim

Maitha Saeed

Osha Saeed

Faculty Supervisor :Prof. Hassan Noura

  • 200303420
  • 200337340
  • 200303266
  • 200303277
outline
Outline
  • Project Description
  • Electric train
  • PLC
  • Sensor
  • Ladder Diagram
  • Conclusion
introduction
Introduction
  • Designing, constructing and controlling an electric train circuit:
    • two paths for two electric trains
    • A common section with detectors
  • The objective of building this system is to use it in electrical control lab
project components
Project components:
  • Two trains with tracks
  • Common section
  • PLC
  • Sensor: read switch
types of trains scale
Types Of Trains Scale
  • There are different types of train scales depend on the size:
    • G scale
    • O scale
    • HO scale
    • N scale
g scale
G Scale
  • “G” derives from “garden”
  • The largest one
  • Scale ratio: 1:23
  • Manufacturers
    • Bachmann
    • Aristo Craft
    • USA Trains
o scale
O Scale
  • Scaleratio:1:48
  • Bigger than the HO
  • Manufacturers
    • Bachmann
    • K-Line
    • Lionel
ho scale
HO Scale
  • This is the most popular model railway scale in the world. The name is derived from "Half O“
  • Scale ratio:1:87
  • Manufacturers
    • Bachmann
    • Life-Line
    • Athearn
n scale
N Scale
  • Name derived from Nine millimeter; this is the second most popular scale worldwide
  • The Smallest size of trains
  • Scale ratio:1:160
  • Manufacturers
    • Bachmann
    • Life-Line
    • Athearn
    • Atlas
power supply of the train
Power supply of the train
  • The train has the power from the track,

12 V DC with 1 Amp power supply is connected for the track to give the train the enough power to move

circuit of controlling the train
Circuit of controlling the train
  • one relay with two contacts is used to supply the power for the train or prevent the power according to the signal of the sensors.

Relay with two contacts

common section
Common section

The right and left common section are used to control the direction of the train from one track to another.

To control the common section, Tow relays are used for the switch of each common section.

Right common section

Left

common section

slide16

PCB layout

The PCB with components

programmable logic controller
Programmable Logic Controller
  • PLC is defined (by NEMA) as:
    • digitally operating electronic apparatus
    • uses a programmable memory
      • for the internal storage of instructions
      • for implementing specific functions
        • Ex: logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic
    • to control through digital or analog input/output
programmable logic controller1
Programmable Logic Controller

WHICH IS A DIGITAL ELECTRONIC DEVICE THAT MEETS THE FOLLOWING THREE CRITERIA:

  • It has a programmable memory, in which instruction can be stored.
  • The instructions stored in the memory are used to implement various functions, such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetical functions.
  • The various functions are used to control machines or processes.
slide20

PLC controller components

  • Central Processing Unit
  • Memory
  • Power Supply
  • Analog/Digital Inputs
  • Analog/Digital Outputs
central processing unit cpu
Central Processing Unit – CPU
    • CPU is the brain of a PLC controller.
    • Microcontrollers with 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit
  • CPU tasks:
    • communication
    • program execution
    • memory operation
    • overseeing input
    • setting up of an output
slide22

Memory

  • System memory is used by a PLC for an process control system
  • It contains a user program translated from a ladder diagram to a binary form
  • It contains: RAM, ROM, EPROM and Flash
power supply
Power supply
  • Electrical supply is used in bringing electrical energy to central processing unit
  • Most PLC controllers work either at 24 VDC or 220 VAC
plc controller inputs
PLC controller inputs
  • Input devices : Keys, keyboards and functional switches
  • Input can be analog or digital
  • Analog input is used to receive analog signals
  • Digital input is received one or zero when the connected component turns ON or OFF
plc controller outputs
PLC controller outputs
  • Output devices: motors, relays, indicators, sound signalization
  • Output can be analog or digital
  • Analog output is used to generate the analog signal
  • Digital output signal works as a switch; it connects and

disconnects line

plc programming
PLC Programming
  • PLC is a programmable device
  • The IEC 61131-1 standard defines five programming languages for programmable control systems:
    • Function Block Diagram (FBD)
    • Ladder Diagram (LD)( is used in the project)
    • Structured Text (ST)
    • Instruction List (IL)
    • Sequential Function Chart (SFC)
modular plc

INTERNAL BUS

o

PROCESSOR

POWER SUPPLY MODULE

INPUT

MODULE

OUTPUT

MODULE

Memory

OUTPUTS

INPUTS

power

Modular PLC

From the sensors

To tracks and common section circuit

first step in programming the plc
First step in programming the PLC:
  • Install the hardware:
    • CPU: 314-6CF02-0AB0
    • Digital I/O modules: D18xDC24V
    • Power Supply: 6EP1331-1SL11

Now, the PLC is ready to execute the Ladder Diagram

digital i o addressing
Digital I/O addressing
  • Each input module can has from 1 byte to 4bytes
follow digital i o addressing
Follow Digital I/O Addressing
  • The figures show each module can have from 1-4 bytes
  • Starting from 0 up to 31 in each rack
sensor
Sensor
  • Sensor is a device that:
    • detects
    • measures a physical property
      • Ex: motion, heat, light, temperature, electromagnetic energy, pressure, magnetism or distance
    • converts into an analog or digital signal.
types of sensor
Types of sensor:
  • Magnetic sensor
  • Mechanical sensor:
  • Photoelectric sensor:
read switch
Read switch
  • It is magnetic sensor
  • Connected to the input to the PLC
  • Needs 24 V power supply to work
  • Its send digital signal to the PLC when it senses the magnetic that was placed on the train
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The project is done: Design, construction and control of an electric train circuit using the PLC
  • Using standards for the PLC and safety
  • We learn from the GP project to work in a group